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  • Product Name
    beta Actin Antibody
  • Catalog No.
  • RRID
  • Source
  • Application
  • Reactivity
    Human, Mouse, Rat, Pig, Zebrafish, Bovine, Dog, Monkey, Fish
  • Prediction
    Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(100%), Chicken(100%), Xenopus(100%)
  • UniProt
  • Mol.Wt
  • Concentration
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Product Information

Alternative Names:Expand▼

ACTB; Actin; cytoplasmic 1; Beta-actin; Beta actin; BRWS1; β actin;b actin; Actin beta; Beta cytoskeletal actin; PS1TP5-binding protein 1; PS1TP5BP1;


WB 1:3000-1:20000, IHC 1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.


Human, Mouse, Rat, Pig, Zebrafish, Bovine, Dog, Monkey, Fish

Predicted Reactivity:

Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(100%), Chicken(100%), Xenopus(100%)






The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).


Beta actin antibody detects endogenous levels of total Beta actin.


Please cite this product as: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF7018, RRID:AB_2839420.





Storage Condition and Buffer:

Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.

Immunogen Information


A synthesized peptide derived from human Beta actin.


>>Visit The Human Protein Atlas

Gene ID:

Gene Name:


Molecular Weight:

Observed Mol.Wt.: 43kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: 42kDa(Calculated)..

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs.


Actin, a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein, is the major component of the cytoskeleton. At least six isoforms are known in mammals. Nonmuscle β- and γ-actin, also known as cytoplasmic actin, are predominantly expressed in nonmuscle cells, controlling cell structure and motility.


Research Background


Actin is a highly conserved protein that polymerizes to produce filaments that form cross-linked networks in the cytoplasm of cells (PubMed:29581253). Actin exists in both monomeric (G-actin) and polymeric (F-actin) forms, both forms playing key functions, such as cell motility and contraction (PubMed:29581253). In addition to their role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, G- and F-actin also localize in the nucleus, and regulate gene transcription and motility and repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:29925947).

Post-translational Modifications:


Oxidation of Met-44 and Met-47 by MICALs (MICAL1, MICAL2 or MICAL3) to form methionine sulfoxide promotes actin filament depolymerization. MICAL1 and MICAL2 produce the (R)-S-oxide form. The (R)-S-oxide form is reverted by MSRB1 and MSRB2, which promote actin repolymerization.

Monomethylation at Lys-84 (K84me1) regulates actin-myosin interaction and actomyosin-dependent processes (PubMed:23673617). Demethylation by ALKBH4 is required for maintaining actomyosin dynamics supporting normal cleavage furrow ingression during cytokinesis and cell migration (PubMed:23673617).

Methylated at His-73 by SETD3 (PubMed:30526847, PubMed:30626964, PubMed:30785395). Methylation at His-73 is required for smooth muscle contraction of the laboring uterus during delivery (By similarity).

N-terminal acetylation by NAA80 affects actin filament depolymerization and elongation, including elongation driven by formins (PubMed:29581253). In contrast, filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex is not affected (PubMed:29581253).

(Microbial infection) Monomeric actin is cross-linked by V.cholerae toxins RtxA and VgrG1 in case of infection: bacterial toxins mediate the cross-link between Lys-50 of one monomer and Glu-270 of another actin monomer, resulting in formation of highly toxic actin oligomers that cause cell rounding (PubMed:19015515). The toxin can be highly efficient at very low concentrations by acting on formin homology family proteins: toxic actin oligomers bind with high affinity to formins and adversely affect both nucleation and elongation abilities of formins, causing their potent inhibition in both profilin-dependent and independent manners (PubMed:26228148).

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton. Nucleus.
Note: Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte

Subunit Structure:

Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix (PubMed:28604741, PubMed:16685646). Each actin can bind to 4 others (PubMed:28604741, PubMed:16685646). Identified in a IGF2BP1-dependent mRNP granule complex containing untranslated mRNAs (PubMed:17289661). Component of the BAF complex, which includes at least actin (ACTB), ARID1A, ARID1B/BAF250, SMARCA2, SMARCA4/BRG1, ACTL6A/BAF53, ACTL6B/BAF53B, SMARCE1/BAF57 SMARCC1/BAF155, SMARCC2/BAF170, SMARCB1/SNF5/INI1, and one or more of SMARCD1/BAF60A, SMARCD2/BAF60B, or SMARCD3/BAF60C (PubMed:18765789). In muscle cells, the BAF complex also contains DPF3 (PubMed:18765789). Found in a complex with XPO6, Ran, ACTB and PFN1 (PubMed:14592989). Interacts with XPO6 and EMD (PubMed:15328537). Interacts with ERBB2 (PubMed:21555369). Interacts with GCSAM (PubMed:17823310). Interacts with TBC1D21 (By similarity). Interacts with CPNE1 (via VWFA domain) and CPNE4 (via VWFA domain) (By similarity). Interacts with DHX9 (via C-terminus); this interaction is direct and mediates the attachment to nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (PubMed:11687588). Interacts with FAM107A (PubMed:21969592, PubMed:28604741).


Belongs to the actin family.

Research Fields

Research Fields:

· Cellular Processes > Transport and catabolism > Phagosome.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Focal adhesion.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Tight junction.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Apoptosis.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Adherens junction.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cell motility > Regulation of actin cytoskeleton.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Hippo signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Rap1 signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Hepatocellular carcinoma.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Viral myocarditis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Salmonella infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Vibrio cholerae infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Shigellosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Influenza A.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells.
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Platelet activation.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Leukocyte transendothelial migration.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Digestive system > Gastric acid secretion.
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Thyroid hormone signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Oxytocin signaling pathway.

Reference Citations:

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Application: WB    Species:mouse;    Sample:Not available

Figure 5. Down regulation of Tcf12 accelerate and potentiate bone repair in vivo. (A‐B) Quantification of Alp activity at day 14 in U‐0126 and LDN‐193189 treated shTcf12 and scrambled groups.

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Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

FIGURE 3  miR-506 down-regulated MDR1/P-gp expression in HCT116-OxR. A, The mRNA level of MDR1 was decreased after transfection with the miR-506 mimic of the relative chemoresistant genes as demonstrated by qRT-PCR. B, The protein level of MDR1 was decreased after transfection with the miR-506 mimic of the relative chemoresistant proteins as demonstrated by Western blot. C, Expression of P-gp detected by immunofluorescence staining.HCT116-OxR-miR-506 cells showed low levels of fluorescent staining of P-gp, whereas maximal staining of P-gp was observed in HCT116-OxR cells, readily distinguished from background. Zoom: 200×. *P<.05)

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Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

Fig. 2. Effects of CsA on emodin-induced apoptosis. The cells were treated with emodin for 48 h in the presence or absence of CsA (5mM), then assays were performed. (A) Analysis of apoptosis by nuclear condensation. The Hoechst 33342 staining showed typical apoptotic morphology changes after emodin treatment. The images were acquired by inverted fluorescence microscopy. (B) Analysis of apoptosis by Annexin V/PI double-staining assay. (C) Determination of Cyto-C level in mitochondria and cytosol by western blots. b-actin and VDAC1 were used as internal control.

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Application: WB    Species:mouse;    Sample:Not available

Fig. 6. Role of MRP1 on lead-induced mitochondrial toxicity. (A) Expression of MRP1 in the mitochondria of Sertoli cells with various concentrations of lead acetate. (B) Expression of MRP1 in the mitochondria of Sertoli cells with continuous time exposure to lead acetate (20mM). (C) Expression of MRP1 in the mitochondria of the TM4 cells and MRP1()TM4 cells. (D) Transport activity of MRP1 in the mitochondria of the TM4 cells and MRP1()TM4 cells. (E) The accumulation of lead in the mitochondria of TM4 cells and MRP1()TM4 cells. Data represent mean  SD of at least three independent experiments (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. control).

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77). Zhong JR et al. Phytic acid disrupted intestinal immune status and suppressed growth performance in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 24;92:536-551 (PubMed: 31247320) [IF=3.298]

78). Zheng L et al. Selenium deficiency impaired immune function of the immune organs in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Jun;77:53-70 (PubMed: 29559270) [IF=3.298]

79). Zheng L et al. Selenium deficiency impaired structural integrity of the head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Nov;82:408-420 (PubMed: 30142391) [IF=3.298]

80). Peng XR et al. Supplementation exogenous bile acid improved growth and intestinal immune function associated with NF-κB and TOR signalling pathways in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Enhancement the effect of protein-sparing by dietary lipid. Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 26;92:552-569 (PubMed: 31252043) [IF=3.298]

81). Wang HF;Ma JX;Shang QL;An JB;Chen HT; et al. Crocetin inhibits the proliferation, migration and TGF-β 2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelial cells . Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Nov 15;815:391-398. (PubMed: 28970011) [IF=3.263]

82). Zhang H et al. Crocetin inhibits PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Nov 2 (PubMed: 30395849) [IF=3.263]

83). Wang HF;Ma JX;Shang QL;An JB;Chen HT; et al. Crocetin inhibits the proliferation, migration and TGF-β 2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelial cells . Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Nov 15;815:391-398. (PubMed: 28970011) [IF=3.263]

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

Figure 2. Crocetin induces cell cycle arrest and influences PCNA, p21, and p53 expression in RPE cells. (A) Cells were harvested after treatment with or without 50 and 100 μM crocetin for 24 h. DNA was stained with PI for flow cytometric analysis. The number of cells in G1 phase was significantly increased in the crocetin-treated group compared with that in the untreated group. (B) Cells were treated or without with 50, 100 and 200 μM crocetin for 48 h. Western blot analysis was used to evaluated the expression of PCNA, p21, p53 and the housekeeping protein β-actin. *P< 0.05 vs 0 μM crocetin, **P< 0.01 vs 0 μM crocetin. The data are presented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 3/group).

84). Liu P;Zou Y;Li X;Yang A;Ye F;Zhang J;Wei W;Kong Y; et al. circGNB1 Facilitates Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Progression by Regulating miR-141-5p-IGF1R Axis. Front Genet 2020 Mar 5;11:193. (PubMed: 32194644) [IF=3.258]

85). Wen L et al. Increased expression of long noncoding RNA GAS6-AS2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of melanoma cells via upregulating GAS6 expression. IUBMB Life 2019 Jun 4 (PubMed: 31162889) [IF=3.244]

86). LeiGan et al. Erucic acid inhibits growth performance and disrupts intestinal structural integrity of on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture 2019;513:734437 [IF=3.224]

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89). Zhu L et al. miR-199b-5p Regulates Immune-Mediated Allograft Rejection after Lung Transplantation Through the GSK3β and NF-κB Pathways. Inflammation 2018 Aug;41(4):1524-1535 (PubMed: 29779167) [IF=3.212]

90). Lu M et al. CTGF Triggers Rat Astrocyte Activation and Astrocyte-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Culture Conditions. Inflammation 2019 Jun 10 (PubMed: 31183597) [IF=3.212]

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92). Wu Y et al. miR‑139‑5p affects cell proliferation, migration and adipogenesis by targeting insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor in hemangioma stem cells. Int J Mol Med 2020 Feb;45(2):569-577 (PubMed: 31894289) [IF=3.098]

93). Liu DH et al. Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of Paeonol in Epileptic Rats. Neurochem Res 2019 Sep 13 (PubMed: 31520267) [IF=3.038]

94). Wu Z et al. MFAP5 promotes tumor progression and bone metastasis by regulating ERK/MMP signaling pathways in breast cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Apr 6;498(3):495-501 (PubMed: 29526753)

95). Xin Y et al. Versatile Pt NCs-based chemotherapeutic agents significantly induce the apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Apr 30;512(2):218-223 (PubMed: 30885437)

96). Wan LY et al. miR-320 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro by targeting FOXM1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Feb 6;457(2):125-32 (PubMed: 25446103)

Application: WB    Species:Not available;    Sample:Not available

97). Lei X et al. Effects of cyclic fluid stress at different frequencies on behaviors of cells incubated on titanium alloy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Jan 29;522(1):100-106 (PubMed: 31740003)

98). Li L et al. MiR-93-5p promotes gastric cancer-cell progression via inactivation of the Hippo signaling pathway. Gene 2018 Jan 30;641:240-247 (PubMed: 29045821)

99). Li L et al. MiR-93-5p promotes gastric cancer-cell progression via inactivation of the Hippo signaling pathway. Gene 2018 Jan 30;641:240-247 (PubMed: 29045821)

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

(C) miR-93-5p overexpression suppressed and increased E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression, respectively. The opposite result was observed in response to miR-93-5p downregulation.

100). Chi S et al. Knockdown of long non-coding HOTAIR enhances the sensitivity to progesterone in endometrial cancer by epigenetic regulation of progesterone receptor isoform B. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2019 Feb;83(2):277-287 (PubMed: 30443761)

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102). Deng L;Ou Z;Huang D;Li C;Lu Z;Liu W;Wu F;Nong C;Gao J;Peng Y; et al. Diverse effects of different Akkermansia muciniphila genotypes on Brown adipose tissue inflammation and whitening in a high-fat-diet murine model. Microb Pathog 2020 Jun 24;104353. (PubMed: 32592821)

103). Zhu C et al. Downregulation of Proline Hydroxylase 2 and Upregulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α are Associated with Endometrial Cancer Aggressiveness. Cancer Manag Res 2019 Nov 22;11:9907-9912 (PubMed: 31819628)

104). Chen W et al. MicroRNA-214 protects L6 skeletal myoblasts against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. Free Radic Res 2020 Mar 5:1-11 (PubMed: 32131653)

105). Locatelli FM et al. Resveratrol-loaded nanoemulsion prevents cognitive decline after abdominal surgery in aged rats. J Pharmacol Sci 2018 Aug;137(4):395-402 (PubMed: 30196020)

106). Shang J et al. CircPAN3 mediates drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia through the miR-153-5p/miR-183-5p-XIAP axis. Exp Hematol 2018 Nov 2 (PubMed: 30395908)

107). Ding S et al. Combined effects of ambient particulate matter exposure and a high-fat diet on oxidative stress and steatohepatitis in mice. PLoS One 2019 Mar 28;14(3):e0214680 (PubMed: 30921449)

108). Zhang W et al. Microencapsulated olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation reduces P2X4 receptor overexpression and inhibits neuropathic pain in rats. Brain Res 2019 Sep 17:146465 (PubMed: 31539546)

109). Ge QD et al. Differential Expression of miRNAs in the Hippocampi of Offspring Rats Exposed to Fluorine Combined with Aluminum during the Embryonic Stage and into Adulthood. Biol Trace Elem Res 2018 Jul 22 (PubMed: 30033483)

110). Gan H et al. KIF2C exerts an oncogenic role in nonsmall cell lung cancer and is negatively regulated by miR-325-3p. Cell Biochem Funct 2019 Jul 22 (PubMed: 31328811)

111). Gao Y et al. TGF-β1 promotes bovine mammary fibroblast proliferation through the ERK 1/2 signalling pathway. Cell Biol Int 2016 Jul;40(7):750-60 (PubMed: 27063575)

Application: WB    Species:Not available;    Sample:Not available

112). Wang Y et al. The Role of YB1 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Adhesion. Int J Med Sci 2018 Aug 6;15(12):1304-1311 (PubMed: 30275756)

113). Wang Y et al. The Role of YB1 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Adhesion. Int J Med Sci 2018 Aug 6;15(12):1304-1311 (PubMed: 30275756)

114). Lei Z et al. Proteomic Analysis of Beef Tenderloin and Flank Assessed Using an Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ). Animals (Basel) 2020 Jan 16;10(1) (PubMed: 31963250)

115). Wu K et al. Antitumor effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on gallbladder cancer by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Oncol Lett 2018 Nov;16(5):5687-5696 (PubMed: 30344724)

116). Hu Y et al. Expression and clinical relevance of SPOPL in medulloblastoma. Oncol Lett 2017 Sep;14(3):3051-3056 (PubMed: 28928843)

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

117). Cai W et al. Uric Acid Induces Endothelial Dysfunction by Activating the HMGB1/RAGE Signaling Pathway. Biomed Res Int 2017;2017:4391920 (PubMed: 28116308)

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

118). Zhang W et al. Effects of microencapsulated olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation on neuropathic pain and P2X7 receptor expression in the L4-5 spinal cord segment. Neurosci Lett 2019 Feb 9 (PubMed: 30753909)

119). Zhang WJ;Luo HL;Zhu ZM; et al. Effect of olfactory ensheathing cells combined with chitosan on inhibition of P2× 4 receptor over-expression-mediated neuropathic pain. Neurosci Lett 2020 Mar 23;722:134859. (PubMed: 32097702)

120). Li J;Kong L;Huang H;Luan S;Jin R;Wu F; et al. ASIC1a inhibits cell pyroptosis induced by acid‐induced activation of rat hepatic stellate cells. FEBS Open Bio 2020 Jun;10(6):1044-1055. (PubMed: 32237041)

121). Wang J et al. Interfering Expression of Chimeric Transcript SEPT7P2-PSPH Promotes Cell Proliferation in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. J Oncol 2019 Apr 1;2019:1654724 (PubMed: 31057610)

122). Zhang WJ et al. Transplantation of microencapsulated olfactory ensheathing cells inhibits the P2X2 receptor over-expression mediated neuropathic pain in the L4-5 spinal cord segment. Int J Neurosci 2020 Jan 8:1-10 (PubMed: 31914345)

123). Zhang G et al. Acute stimulatory effect of tumor necrosis factor on the basolateral 50 pS K channels in the thick ascending limb of the rat kidney. Mol Med Rep 2018 Sep 10 (PubMed: 30221721)

124). Feng Y et al. Bone marrow stromal cells promote neuromotor functional recovery, via upregulation of neurotrophic factors and synapse proteins following traumatic brain injury in rats. Mol Med Rep 2017 Jul;16(1):654-660 (PubMed: 28560414)

125). Feng Y et al. Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against traumatic brain injury in rats: Involvement of synaptic proteins and neuronal autophagy. Mol Med Rep 2016 Jun;13(6):5248-54 (PubMed: 27122047)

126). Jia J;Sun J;Liao W;Qin L;Su K;He Y;Zhang J;Yang R;Zhang Z;Sun Y; et al. Knockdown of long non‑coding RNA AK094629 attenuates the interleukin‑1β induced expression of interleukin‑6 in synovium‑derived mesenchymal stem cells from the temporomandibular joint. Mol Med Rep 2020 May 28. (PubMed: 32468015)

127). Ren WB et al. Interferon-γ regulates cell malignant growth via the c-Abl/HDAC2 signaling pathway in mammary epithelial cells. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2019 Jan (PubMed: 30614229)

128). Feifei W et al. MAGP2, a Component of Extracellular Matrix, Is Upregulated in Colorectal Cancer and Negatively Modulated by miR-200b-3p. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2019 Jan 1;18:1533033819870777 (PubMed: 31426719)

129). Li Y et al. Theaflavic acid from black tea protects PC12 cells against ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis induced by OGD/R via activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. J Nat Med 2019 Jun 21 (PubMed: 31227974)

130). Yang C et al. Expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 as prognostic biomarkers for triple-negative breast cancer. Histol Histopathol 2019 Nov 19:18185 (PubMed: 31745967)

131). Lu Y et al. Lycopene alleviates disc degeneration under oxidative stress through the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Mol Cell Probes 2020 Mar 6:101559 (PubMed: 32151764)

132). Huang H et al. Astragaloside IV protects cardiomyocytes from anoxia/reoxygenation injury by upregulating the expression of Hes1 protein. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2016 May;94(5):542-53 (PubMed: 27070866)

133). Wu X et al. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Extract of Acrostichum aureum Linn. against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 Dec 12;2018:3585394 (PubMed: 30643529)

134). Zhong W et al. Camellia (Camellia oleifera Abel.) seed oil promotes milk fat and protein synthesis-related gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Food Sci Nutr 2019 Dec 5;8(1):419-427 (PubMed: 31993168)

135). Song C et al. Sericin enhances the insulin-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the liver of a type 2 diabetes rat model. Exp Ther Med 2018 Oct;16(4):3345-3352 (PubMed: 30250521)

136). Yang L et al. Angiogenic function of astragaloside IV in rats with myocardial infarction occurs via the PKD1-HDAC5-VEGF pathway. Exp Ther Med 2019 Apr;17(4):2511-2518 (PubMed: 30906439)

137). Wang W;Zheng S;He H;Ge H;Saeed BR; et al. N, N‑diethylaminobenzaldehyde targets aldehyde dehydrogenase to eradicate human pancreatic cancer cells. Exp Ther Med 2020 Jul;20(1):662-670. (PubMed: 32550888)

138). Huankai Yao et al. Protective effects of hederagenic acid on PC12 cells against the OGD/R-induced apoptosis via activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Med Chem Res 2020 Jan

139). Li H et al. Impact of Taurine on the proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical carcinoma cells and its mechanism. Chin Med J (Engl) 2019 Apr 20;132(8):948-956 (PubMed: 30958437)

140). Chen M et al. The Therapeutic Effects and Possible Mechanism of Pranoprofen in Mouse Model of Corneal Alkali Burns. J Ophthalmol 2020 Apr 6;2020:7485912 (PubMed: 32322412)

141). Han H et al. Lamotrigine attenuates cerebral ischemia-induced cognitive impairment and decreases β-amyloid and phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus in rats. Neuroreport 2015 Aug 19;26(12):723-7 (PubMed: 26164461)

Application: WB    Species:rat;    Sample:rat

LTG decreased Aβ1–42 and phosphorylated tau protein levels in the ipsilateral hippocampus of MCAO rats. (a) Immunoblotting photographs of Aβ1–42, Tau-5, and AT8. (b–d) Quantitative analysis of immunoreactivity of Aβ1–42 (b), Tau-5 (c), and AT8 (d). (e) Immunofluorescence of the hippocampal CA1 zone for AT8. Scale bar=50 μm. *Means sham versus another group, *P<0.05, **P< 0.01, ***P<0.001; † LTG 20 versus vehicle, † P<0.05, †††P<0.001; ‡ LTG 40 versus vehicle, ‡‡P< 0.01, ‡‡‡P

142). Plaza A et al. Inflammatory stress and altered angiogenesis evoked by very high-fat diets in mouse liver. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2019 Aug - Sep;66(7):434-442 (PubMed: 30833154)

143). Huikun Xu et al. Chemerin promotes the viability and migration of human placental microvascular endothelial cells and activates MAPK/AKT signaling . Int J Clin Exp Med 2018;11(2):721-727

144). et al. Effects of Sancai Lianmei Particle on autophagy and apoptosis in testes of diabetic mice via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Int J Clin Exp Med 2019;12(6):6720-6732

145). Xiangli Yan et al. Calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside Attenuates OGD/R-Induced Damage by Preventing Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis via the SIRT1/FOXO1/PGC-1α Pathway in HT22 Cells. NEURAL PLAST 2019, Article ID 8798069, 11 pages

146). Liu J et al. Irisin Enhances Doxorubicin-Induced Cell Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer by Inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB Pathway. Med Sci Monit 2019 Aug 14;25:6085-6096 (PubMed: 31412018)

147). Qi H et al. Histone Demethylase JMJD2A Inhibition Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Carotid Arteries of Balloon-Injured Diabetic Rats via Transcriptional Silencing: Inflammatory Gene Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem 2015;37(2):719-34 (PubMed: 26356263)

Application: WB    Species:Not available;    Sample:Not available

148). Li XH et al. Parthenolide attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via the NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway. Respir Res 2018 Jun 5;19(1):111 (PubMed: 29871641)

149). et al. Effects and Mechanisms of Vitamin C Post-Conditioning on Platelet Activation after Hypoxia/Reoxygenation.

150). Gong Y et al. CUL4A promotes cell invasion in gastric cancer by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Biologics 2017 Apr 12;11:45-53 (PubMed: 28442889)

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:HGC27

Figure 4 CUL4A and NF-κB were overexpressed in GC tissues. Notes: (A) Representative images of gastric tumor tissues showing concordant positive staining of CUL4A and NF-κB in the same sample (200×). (B) Western blot analysis of CUL4A and NF-κB expressions in three paired primary GC and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. These three patients were all diagnosed stage III. (C) CUL4A expression scores and NF-κB expression scores in 50 GC samples revealed that CUL4A expression positively correlated with NF-κB expression via correlation analysis

151). et al. Mannan oligosaccharides improved growth performance and antioxidant capacity in the intestine of on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

152). et al. The role of long noncoding RNA AL161431. 1 in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.

153). et al. Protective effect of Schisandra chinensis total lignans on acute alcoholic-induced liver injury related to inhibiting CYP2E1 activation and activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

154). et al. Inflammatory stress and altered angiogenesis evoked by very high-fat diets in mouse liverLas dietas ricas en grasa estimulan procesos inflamatorios y angiogénicos en hígado de ratón.

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157). et al. NUSAP1 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression Through Regulation of Yap Stability.

158). et al. Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 protects rat hippocampal neurons against Aβ-induced neuronal toxicity.

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160). Fang CC;Feng L;Jiang WD;Wu P;Liu Y;Kuang SY;Tang L;Liu XA;Zhou XQ; et al. Effects of dietary methionine on growth performance, muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis of on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Br J Nutr 2020 Jul 28;1-36. (PubMed: 32718370)

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162). et al. Erucic acid impairs intestinal immune function of on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

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164). et al. Soybean glycinin caused NADPH-oxidase-regulated ROS overproduction and decreased ROS elimination capacity in the mid and distal intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

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166). et al. Improving the in vivo bioavailability and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of tanshinone IIA by alginate solid dispersion.

167). Zhuoqi Liu et al. Effect of targeted mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 regulation on proliferation and apoptosis of SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Biomedical Research 2017 Jun 8;28(15)

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169). Yu Gong;Meijiao Song;Jianguo Zhao;Jianping Xiong;Xiaojun Xiang;Ling Zhang;Feng Yu;Jun Chen;Miao Feng;Zhengyu Zhan et al. Targeting CUL4A inhibits HCT-116 colon cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Oncology Letters

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Catalog Number :

(Blocking peptide available as AF7018-BP)

Price/Size :

Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide(0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).

Function :

Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.

Format and storage :

Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.

Precautions :

This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

High similarity Medium similarity Low similarity No similarity
P60709 as Substrate
Site PTM Type Enzyme
M1 Acetylation
D2 Acetylation
S14 Phosphorylation
C17 S-Nitrosylation
K18 Methylation
K18 Ubiquitination
S33 Phosphorylation
K50 Acetylation
K50 Methylation
K50 Ubiquitination
S52 Phosphorylation
Y53 Phosphorylation
S60 Phosphorylation
K61 Acetylation
K61 Sumoylation
K61 Ubiquitination
T66 Phosphorylation
K68 Methylation
K68 Sumoylation
Y69 Phosphorylation
H73 Methylation
T77 Phosphorylation
K84 Methylation
K84 Sumoylation
K84 Ubiquitination
T89 Phosphorylation
Y91 Phosphorylation
T106 Phosphorylation
K113 Acetylation
K113 Sumoylation
K113 Ubiquitination
T120 Phosphorylation
Y143 Phosphorylation
S155 Phosphorylation
T160 Phosphorylation
T162 Phosphorylation
Y166 Phosphorylation
Y169 Phosphorylation
T186 Phosphorylation
Y188 Phosphorylation
K191 Acetylation
K191 Methylation
K191 Ubiquitination
T194 Phosphorylation
Y198 Phosphorylation
S199 Phosphorylation
T201 Phosphorylation
T202 Phosphorylation
T203 Phosphorylation
K213 Acetylation
K213 Ubiquitination
K215 Ubiquitination
C217 S-Nitrosylation
Y218 Phosphorylation
T229 Phosphorylation
S233 Phosphorylation
S235 Phosphorylation
K238 Ubiquitination
S239 Phosphorylation
Y240 Phosphorylation
T249 Phosphorylation
C257 S-Nitrosylation
S265 Phosphorylation
S271 Phosphorylation
C272 S-Nitrosylation
K284 Sumoylation
K284 Ubiquitination
C285 S-Nitrosylation
K291 Sumoylation
K291 Ubiquitination
Y294 Phosphorylation
T297 Phosphorylation
S300 Phosphorylation
T303 Phosphorylation
T304 Phosphorylation
Y306 Phosphorylation
K315 Acetylation
K315 Sumoylation
K315 Ubiquitination
T318 Phosphorylation
S323 Phosphorylation
T324 Phosphorylation
K326 Acetylation
K326 Methylation
K326 Sumoylation
K326 Ubiquitination
K328 Acetylation
K328 Sumoylation
K328 Ubiquitination
K336 Sumoylation
S348 Phosphorylation
K359 Ubiquitination
Y362 Phosphorylation
S365 Phosphorylation
S368 Phosphorylation
K373 Ubiquitination
C374 S-Nitrosylation
IMPORTANT: For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted antibody in 5% w/v milk , 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween®20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

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