Product: Glucagon Antibody
Catalog: AF0166
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Glucagon
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Dog, Chicken
Mol.Wt.: 25kDa; 21kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P01275
RRID: AB_2833359

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 100ul $280 In stock
 200ul $350 In stock

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Product Info

Source:
Rabbit
Application:
WB 1:500-1:3000, IF/ICC: 1:100-1:500, IHC 1:50-1:200
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.
*Tips:

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Reactivity:
Human,Mouse,Rat,Monkey
Prediction:
Pig(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Dog(100%), Chicken(85%)
Clonality:
Polyclonal
Specificity:
GLP1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total GLP1.
RRID:
AB_2833359
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF0166, RRID:AB_2833359.
Conjugate:
Unconjugated.
Purification:
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Storage:
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.
Alias:

Fold/Unfold

GCG;glicentin-related polypeptide;GLP-1;GLP-1(7-36);GLP-1(7-37);GLP-2;GLP1;GLP1, included;GLP2;GLP2, included;GLUC_HUMAN;Glucagon;Glucagon like peptide 1;glucagon-like peptide 1;Glucagon-like peptide 1, included;Glucagon-like peptide 2;Glucagon-like peptide 2, included;GRPP;OXM;OXY;preproglucagon;

Immunogens

Immunogen:
Uniprot:
Gene(ID):
Expression:
P01275 GLUC_HUMAN:

Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.

Description:
GCG Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes. Belongs to the glucagon family. Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion.
Sequence:
MKSIYFVAGLFVMLVQGSWQRSLQDTEEKSRSFSASQADPLSDPDQMNEDKRHSQGTFTSDYSKYLDSRRAQDFVQWLMNTKRNRNNIAKRHDEFERHAEGTFTSDVSSYLEGQAAKEFIAWLVKGRGRRDFPEEVAIVEELGRRHADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITDRK

Predictions

Predictions:

Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Species
Results
Score
Pig
100
Horse
100
Bovine
100
Sheep
100
Dog
100
Chicken
85
Xenopus
69
Zebrafish
0
Rabbit
0
Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - P01275 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
T26 Phosphorylation
S32 Phosphorylation
S34 Phosphorylation
S36 Phosphorylation
S42 Phosphorylation
S54 Phosphorylation
Y62 Phosphorylation
S68 Phosphorylation
S150 Phosphorylation
S152 Phosphorylation

Research Backgrounds

Function:

Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes.

GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Plays important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Has growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis.

GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability.

Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation of fullness.

Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life.

PTMs:

Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine pancreas.

Subcellular Location:

Secreted.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.

Family&Domains:

Belongs to the glucagon family.

Research Fields

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Insulin secretion.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Glucagon signaling pathway.

References

1). Liu W et al. Possible role of GLP-1 in antidepressant effects of metformin and exercise in CUMS mice. JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS 2018 Dec 26;246:486-497 (PubMed: 30599373) [IF=6.6]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: hippocampus

Fig. 3. |CUMS reduces protein levels of hippocampal GLP-1 in mice. GLP-1 protein levels in serum (A, n = 8 per group) and hippocampus (B, n = 3–4 per group).Hippocampal GLP-1R distribution (C: top, ventral hippocampus; bottom, dorsal hippocampus), gray value (D) and positive cell number (E) using IHC. Magnification 200 × , Scale bars = 50 μm. N = 3 sections per brain were analyzed, n = 3 per group. Data are presented as means ± SEM. *p < 0.05 versus Con.

2). Mohammed El Tabaa M et al. GLP-1 mediates the neuroprotective action of crocin against cigarette smoking-induced cognitive disorders via suppressing HMGB1-RAGE/TLR4-NF-κB pathway. International Immunopharmacology 2022 Sep;110:108995. (PubMed: 35785730) [IF=5.6]

Application: WB    Species: Rat    Sample:

Fig. 4. Effect of crocin on hippocampal GLP-1 level and expression in a rat model of CS-induced cognitive disorders. (A) GLP-1 level (pg/g tissue); n = 6, (B) western blot showing GLP-1 expression, and (C) bar graph reflecting GLP-1 expression. Protein expression level was normalized to β-actin and shown relative to that of control; n = 3. Values were expressed as means ± SD. Significant difference were presented at *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; using One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) post-hoc. C: control; Cro: crocin; CS: cigarettes smoke; GLP-1: Glucagon-like peptide-1.

3). Li X et al. Intake of flavonoids from Astragalus membranaceus ameliorated brain impairment in diabetic mice via modulating brain-gut axis. Chinese Medicine 2022 Feb 12;17(1):22. (PubMed: 35151348) [IF=4.9]

Application: IHC    Species: Rat    Sample: brain

Fig. 8 The effects of NaB on brain function in STZ induced diabetic mice. A Body weight, and B Fasting blood glucose in mice during the experiment. C Fasting blood glucose decrement at Week 14. D H&E staining of mice brain (black arrow indicates the atrophic and deep staining of neurons; red arrow indicates the loose structure of brain tissues; and the swollen, vacuolar neurons were indicated by green arrow). ELISA assay for concentration of E BDNF in brain tissue, and F AGEs and G IL-1β in serum. H IHC analysis of GABA and I GLP-1 in intestine tissues (red arrow indicates the GLP-1). J Expression of GABA in brain cortex or hippocampus by immunohistochemical analysis. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, vs. NC group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, vs. T2DM group

4). Bai Y et al. The active GLP-1 analogue liraglutide alleviates H9N2 influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice. MICROBIAL PATHOGENESIS 2020 Dec 5;150:104645. (PubMed: 33285220) [IF=3.8]

Application: WB    Species: Mice    Sample: lung tissues

Fig. 2. GCG mRNA expression and GCG precursor protein are increased, but total GLP-1 and active GLP-1 levels are decreased in mice during infection. (A) GCG mRNA expression in the lungs of mock and H9N2 groups (n = 5). (B) Representative western blotting bands of the GCG precursor protein in the lungs of mock and H9N2 groups. (C) Data of GCG precursor protein expression in the lungs of mock and H9N2 groups (n = 4). (D) Representative immunohistochemistry images of GCG precursor protein expressed in the lungs of mock and H9N2 groups on 7 d.p.i. The results were similar in five mice of per group. GCG precursor protein positive cells was noted by red arrows. (E) Total GLP-1 in the lungs of mock and H9N2 groups (n = 5). (F) Total GLP-1 in the serum of mock and H9N2 groups (n = 5). (G) Active GLP- 1 in the lungs of mock and H9N2 groups (n = 5). (H) Active GLP-1 in the serum of mock and H9N2 groups (n = 5). (I) Active GLP-1/total GLP-1 in the lungs of mock and H9N2 groups on 5 and 7d.p.i. (n = 5). (J) Active GLP-1/total GLP-1 in the serum of mock and H9N2 groups on 5 and 7d.p.i. (n = 5). Data are presented as mean ± SD, analyzed using Sidak’s or Tukey’s multiple comparisons tests. * = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01, *** = P < 0.001, **** = P < 0.0001, NS = non-significant. GCG, glucagon. GLP-1, glucagon like peptide-1. d.p.i., days post infection.

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