Product: CD31 Antibody
Catalog: AF6191
Source: Rabbit
Application: WB, IHC, IF/ICC, ELISA(peptide)
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog
Mol.Wt.: 82kD,130kD(Glycosylation); 83kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P16284
RRID: AB_2835074

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 100ul $280 In stock
 200ul $350 In stock

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(90%), Bovine(90%), Horse(90%), Sheep(90%), Rabbit(90%), Dog(90%)
CD31 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total CD31.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF6191, RRID:AB_2835074.
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl and glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


Adhesion molecule; CD31; CD31 antigen; CD31 EndoCAM; EndoCAM; FLJ34100; FLJ58394; GPIIA; GPIIA'; PECA1; PECA1_HUMAN; Pecam 1; PECAM 1 CD31 EndoCAM; PECAM; PECAM-1; Pecam1; Platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1; Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule; Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1;



Expressed on platelets and leukocytes and is primarily concentrated at the borders between endothelial cells (PubMed:18388311, PubMed:21464369). Expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) (at protein level) (PubMed:19342684, PubMed:17580308). Expressed on neutrophils (at protein level) (PubMed:17580308). Isoform Long predominates in all tissues examined (PubMed:12433657). Isoform Delta12 is detected only in trachea (PubMed:12433657). Isoform Delta14-15 is only detected in lung (PubMed:12433657). Isoform Delta14 is detected in all tissues examined with the strongest expression in heart (PubMed:12433657). Isoform Delta15 is expressed in brain, testis, ovary, cell surface of platelets, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), Jurkat T-cell leukemia, human erythroleukemia (HEL) and U-937 histiocytic lymphoma cell lines (at protein level) (PubMed:12433657, PubMed:18388311).

PECAM-1 is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and at endothelial cell intercellular junctions.



Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - P16284 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
N52 N-Glycosylation
N84 N-Glycosylation
K108 Ubiquitination
N151 N-Glycosylation
K173 Ubiquitination
Y290 Phosphorylation
N320 N-Glycosylation
K374 Ubiquitination
K378 Ubiquitination
K392 Ubiquitination
S409 Phosphorylation
K449 Ubiquitination
N453 N-Glycosylation
K456 Ubiquitination
K495 Ubiquitination
N551 N-Glycosylation
K564 Ubiquitination
S583 Phosphorylation
S587 Phosphorylation
Y623 Phosphorylation
K631 Ubiquitination
S647 Phosphorylation
S653 Phosphorylation
Y663 Phosphorylation
S686 Phosphorylation
Y690 Phosphorylation P06241 (FYN) , P16591 (FER)
T691 Phosphorylation
S700 Phosphorylation
T709 Phosphorylation
T711 Phosphorylation
Y713 Phosphorylation P41240 (CSK) , P16591 (FER) , P06239 (LCK) , P06241 (FYN)
S714 Phosphorylation
Y728 Phosphorylation
S729 Phosphorylation
S734 Phosphorylation
T738 Phosphorylation

Research Backgrounds


Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-690 plays a critical role in TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Trans-homophilic interaction may play a role in endothelial cell-cell adhesion via cell junctions. Heterophilic interaction with CD177 plays a role in transendothelial migration of neutrophils. Homophilic ligation of PECAM1 prevents macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of neighboring viable leukocytes by transmitting a detachment signal. Promotes macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes by tethering them to the phagocytic cells; PECAM1-mediated detachment signal appears to be disabled in apoptotic leukocytes. Modulates bradykinin receptor BDKRB2 activation. Regulates bradykinin- and hyperosmotic shock-induced ERK1/2 activation in endothelial cells. Induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis (By similarity).

Does not protect against apoptosis.


Phosphorylated on Ser and Tyr residues after cellular activation by src kinases. Upon activation, phosphorylated on Ser-729 which probably initiates the dissociation of the membrane-interaction segment (residues 709-729) from the cell membrane allowing the sequential phosphorylation of Tyr-713 and Tyr-690. Constitutively phosphorylated on Ser-734 in resting platelets. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by FER and FES in response to FCER1 activation (By similarity). In endothelial cells Fyn mediates mechanical-force (stretch or pull) induced tyrosine phosphorylation.

Palmitoylation by ZDHHC21 is necessary for cell surface expression in endothelial cells and enrichment in membrane rafts.

Subcellular Location:

Cell membrane>Single-pass type I membrane protein.
Note: Cell surface expression on neutrophils is down-regulated upon fMLP or CXCL8/IL8-mediated stimulation.

Cell membrane>Single-pass type I membrane protein. Membrane raft. Cell junction.
Note: Localizes to the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and recycles from the LBRC to the junction in resting endothelial cells.

Cell junction.
Note: Localizes to the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and recycles from the LBRC to the junction in resting endothelial cells.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Expressed on platelets and leukocytes and is primarily concentrated at the borders between endothelial cells. Expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) (at protein level). Expressed on neutrophils (at protein level). Isoform Long predominates in all tissues examined. Isoform Delta12 is detected only in trachea. Isoform Delta14-15 is only detected in lung. Isoform Delta14 is detected in all tissues examined with the strongest expression in heart. Isoform Delta15 is expressed in brain, testis, ovary, cell surface of platelets, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), Jurkat T-cell leukemia, human erythroleukemia (HEL) and U-937 histiocytic lymphoma cell lines (at protein level).

Subunit Structure:

Trans-homodimer (via Ig-like C2-type 1 and Ig-like C2-type 2 domains); trans-homodimerization is required for cell-cell interaction. Forms a complex with BDKRB2 and GNAQ. Interacts with BDKRB2 and GNAQ.Interacts with PTPN11; Tyr-713 is critical for PTPN11 recruitment. Interacts with FER (By similarity). Interacts (via Ig-like C2-type domain 6) with CD177; the interaction is Ca(2+)-dependent; the interaction is direct.


The Ig-like C2-type domains 2 and 3 contribute to formation of the complex with BDKRB2 and in regulation of its activity.

Research Fields

· Environmental Information Processing > Signaling molecules and interaction > Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs).   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Malaria.

· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Leukocyte transendothelial migration.   (View pathway)


1). Gong X et al. Tracing PRX1+ cells during molar formation and periodontal ligament reconstruction. Int J Oral Sci 2022 Jan 25;14(1):5. (PubMed: 35078971) [IF=24.897]

Application: IF/ICC    Species: Mouse    Sample:

Fig. 4 Distribution of PRX1+ cells in the PDL of adult mouse molars and its function in angiogenesis. a–c In the PDL of Prx1-cre; R26RtdTomato mice, the relationship between PRX1+ cells and vascular endothelial cells in three parts of the periodontal: the upper half of the root (a), the lower half of the root (b), and the alveolar crest (c). PRX1+ cells (white arrowheads) are surrounding the blood vessels (n = 6). d Knock down of Prx1 in PDLSCs. **P < 0.01. e Co-culture of HUVECs and PDLSCs with down-regulation of Prx1, test the expression of CD31 and VEGF (n = 4). **P < 0.01

2). Zhang G et al. Soft apoptotic-cell-inspired nanoparticles persistently bind to macrophage membranes and promote anti-inflammatory and pro-healing effects. Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 1;131:452-463. (PubMed: 34245890) [IF=10.633]

3). Zhang Y et al. pH-responsive hierarchical H2S-releasing nano-disinfectant with deep-penetrating and anti-inflammatory properties for synergistically enhanced eradication of bacterial biofilms and wound infection. J Nanobiotechnology 2022 Jan 29;20(1):55. (PubMed: 35093073) [IF=10.435]

Application: IHC    Species: Mice    Sample: skin tissues

Fig. 7 In vivo anti-biofilm activity and wound healing evaluation. A, B Representative real-time thermal images of the mice treated with PBS and ICG-ZnS NPs irradiated with NIR (808 nm, 1 W cm−2). C Wound photograph of MRSA infected mice after treated with PBS, ICG-ZnS NPs and ICG-ZnS NPs + NIR for 0–7 days; Quantitative measurement of bacteria counts in wounds by standard plate count. D Quantitative analysis of relative wounds area over time. E Body weight changes during 7 days. F H&E staining images, Giemsa staining images, MT staining images and CD31 immunostaining images of skin tissues after treatments with PBS, ICG-ZnS NPs and ICG-ZnS NPs + NIR (scale bar: 200 μm). Data are presented as the means ± SD (n = 3), *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01

4). Cai M et al. Aperture Modulation of Isoreticular Metal Organic Frameworks for Targeted Antitumor Drug Delivery. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 17;14(32):36366-36378. (PubMed: 35897121) [IF=10.383]

5). Liu Y et al. ZIF-8 Modified Multifunctional Bone-Adhesive Hydrogels Promoting Angiogenesis and Osteogenesis for Bone Regeneration. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Aug 19;12(33):36978-36995. (PubMed: 32814397) [IF=10.383]

Application: IF/ICC    Species: rat    Sample: calvaria

Figure 8 Representative sections of rat calvaria after implantation. (A) Masson trichrome staining of decalcified cranial sections at 8 weeks. (B) The results of Sirius red staining for new bone formation. (C) Typical images of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and anti-CD31 staining observed by fluorescence microscopy; quantitative percentage of each fluorescent area for different groups; DAPI-DNA was stained in blue, Rhodamine-ALP, OCN and CD31 were stained in red. (***P<0.001)

6). Yuan W et al. TAZ sensitizes EGFR wild-type non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib by promoting amphiregulin transcription. Cell Death Dis 2019 Mar 25;10(4):283 (PubMed: 30911072) [IF=9.685]

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: transfected H460 and A549 cells

Fig. 2 | TAZ promoted the angiogenesis of NSCLC cells and activated EGFR signaling. a–d HUVEC cells were used to form tubes and transfer the chambers in the presence of conditional media. e Cell lysates from transfected H460 and A549 cells were probed with antibodies for TAZ, EGFR signaling and endothelial markers. GAPDH was used as the loading control. Data were shown as mean ± SD. Each experiment was repeated for at least three times. The scale bar is 200 µm. *: p < 0.05; **: p < 0.01

7). Ren Y et al. Functionalized injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel with antioxidative and photothermal antibacterial activity for infected wound healing. Int J Biol Macromol 2022 May 7;210:218-232. (PubMed: 35537589) [IF=8.025]

8). Wang C et al. Pine pollen polysaccharides promote cell proliferation and accelerate wound healing by activating the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway. Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 15;210:579-587. (PubMed: 35513105) [IF=8.025]

9). Zhang M et al. Human Tissue Kallikrein 1 Is Downregulated in Elderly Human Prostates and Possesses Potential In Vitro Antioxidative and Antifibrotic Effects in Rodent Prostates. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 Apr 30;2021:8877540. (PubMed: 34007408) [IF=7.310]

Application: IF/ICC    Species: rat    Sample: Primary Prostatic Fibroblast

Figure 2: |KLK1 could inhibit fibroblast-myofibroblast transdifferentiation induced by TGF-β1 in RPrAE-RPrPF coculture system. (b) The morphology of RPrAE (magnification ×100) and the verification of RPrAE through the expression of CD31 (green) (magnification ×200).

10). Guo Y et al. Ketogenic diet aggravates hypertension via NF-κB-mediated endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci 2020 Jul 21;258:118124. (PubMed: 32702443) [IF=6.780]

Application: WB    Species: Human    Sample: HUVECs

Fig. 5. Ketone body reduced eNOS expression via NF-κB in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (A) eNOS, CD31 and α-SMA expression in HUVECs subjected to TGF-β and BHB for 48 h were measured with western blot. The quantified eNOS, CD31 and α-SMA levels are presented in (B-D). (E-I) The ERK and NF-κB signaling pathway and related inflammatory cytokine were measured with western blot. (J) Inhibition of NFκB prevented the effect of ketone body and TGF-β on eNOS expression in HUVECs. (K-M) Quantification of eNOS, CD31 and α-SMA. All data are expressed as a mean ± SEM. n = 6 per group. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; BHB, β-hydroxybutyrat; HUVECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β.

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