Product: AR Antibody
Catalog: BF0418
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody to AR
Application: WB ELISA
Reactivity: Human
Mol.Wt.: 99kDa; 99kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P10275
RRID: AB_2833669

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Product Info

ELISA 1:10000, WB 1:500-1:2000
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Monoclonal [AFB1645]
AR antibody detects endogenous levels of total Androgen Receptor.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# BF0418, RRID:AB_2833669.
Mouse IgG1 in phosphate buffered saline (without Mg2+ and Ca2+), pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


AIS; ANDR_HUMAN; Androgen nuclear receptor variant 2; Androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease); Androgen receptor; androgen receptor splice variant 4b; AR; AR8; DHTR; Dihydro testosterone receptor; Dihydrotestosterone receptor (DHTR); Dihydrotestosterone receptor; HUMARA; HYSP1; KD; Kennedy disease (KD); NR3C4; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4 (NR3C4); Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4; SBMA; SMAX1; Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA); Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Testicular Feminization (TFM); TFM;



Purified recombinant fragment of human AR expressed in E. Coli.


Isoform 2 is mainly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle (PubMed:15634333). Isoform 3 is expressed by basal and stromal cells of prostate (at protein level) (PubMed:19244107).

The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains: the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.

PTMs - P10275 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
S16 Phosphorylation
S83 Phosphorylation Q00535 (CDK5) , P06493 (CDK1)
S96 Phosphorylation
S215 Phosphorylation O14965 (AURKA) , P31749 (AKT1) , P11309 (PIM1)
T219 Phosphorylation
Y225 Phosphorylation P16591 (FER)
S233 Phosphorylation
S244 Phosphorylation
S246 Phosphorylation
S258 Phosphorylation
Y269 Phosphorylation Q07912 (TNK2)
T282 Phosphorylation O14965 (AURKA)
S293 Phosphorylation O14965 (AURKA)
S298 Phosphorylation
Y309 Phosphorylation
S310 Phosphorylation Q00535 (CDK5) , P06493 (CDK1)
Y348 Phosphorylation
Y359 Phosphorylation
Y364 Phosphorylation
Y365 Phosphorylation Q07912 (TNK2)
K388 Sumoylation
Y395 Phosphorylation
R407 Phosphorylation
S424 Phosphorylation
S426 Phosphorylation
S516 Phosphorylation P50613 (CDK7) , P28482 (MAPK1) , P06493 (CDK1) , P27361 (MAPK3)
K521 Sumoylation
Y535 Phosphorylation P12931 (SRC)
Y552 Phosphorylation
S579 Phosphorylation Q9NQU5 (PAK6) , P17252 (PRKCA)
K606 Acetylation
K619 Acetylation
K631 Acetylation
K631 Methylation
K633 Acetylation
K634 Acetylation
S651 Phosphorylation P45983 (MAPK8) , Q16539 (MAPK14) , P27361 (MAPK3)
R761 Methylation
S792 Phosphorylation P31749 (AKT1) , O14965 (AURKA)
K826 Ubiquitination
K837 Acetylation
K846 Ubiquitination
K848 Ubiquitination
T851 Phosphorylation P11309 (PIM1)
Y858 Phosphorylation
Y916 Phosphorylation

Research Backgrounds


Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins like ZBTB7A that recruits NCOR1 and NCOR2 to the androgen response elements/ARE on target genes, negatively regulating androgen receptor signaling and androgen-induced cell proliferation. Transcription activation is also down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.

Isoform 3 and isoform 4 lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain and may therefore constitutively activate the transcription of a specific set of genes independently of steroid hormones.


Sumoylated on Lys-388 (major) and Lys-521. Ubiquitinated. Deubiquitinated by USP26. 'Lys-6' and 'Lys-27'-linked polyubiquitination by RNF6 modulates AR transcriptional activity and specificity.

Phosphorylated in prostate cancer cells in response to several growth factors including EGF. Phosphorylation is induced by c-Src kinase (CSK). Tyr-535 is one of the major phosphorylation sites and an increase in phosphorylation and Src kinase activity is associated with prostate cancer progression. Phosphorylation by TNK2 enhances the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity and may be responsible for androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. Phosphorylation at Ser-83 by CDK9 regulates AR promoter selectivity and cell growth. Phosphorylation by PAK6 leads to AR-mediated transcription inhibition.

Palmitoylated by ZDHHC7 and ZDHHC21. Palmitoylation is required for plasma membrane targeting and for rapid intracellular signaling via ERK and AKT kinases and cAMP generation.

Subcellular Location:

Nucleus. Cytoplasm.
Note: Detected at the promoter of target genes (PubMed:25091737). Predominantly cytoplasmic in unligated form but translocates to the nucleus upon ligand-binding. Can also translocate to the nucleus in unligated form in the presence of RACK1.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Isoform 2 is mainly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle. Isoform 3 is expressed by basal and stromal cells of prostate (at protein level).

Subunit Structure:

Binds DNA as a homodimer. Part of a ternary complex containing AR, EFCAB6/DJBP and PARK7. Interacts with HIPK3 and NR0B2 in the presence of androgen. The ligand binding domain interacts with KAT7/HBO1 in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. Interacts with EFCAB6/DJBP, PELP1, PQBP1, RANBP9, RBAK, SPDEF, SRA1, TGFB1I1 and RREB1. Interacts with ZMIZ1/ZIMP10 and ZMIZ2/ZMIP7 which both enhance its transactivation activity. Interacts with SLC30A9 and RAD54L2/ARIP4. Interacts via the ligand-binding domain with LXXLL and FXXLF motifs from NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, NCOA4 and MAGEA11. The AR N-terminal poly-Gln region binds Ran resulting in enhancement of AR-mediated transactivation. Ran-binding decreases as the poly-Gln length increases. Interacts with HIP1 (via coiled coil domain). Interacts (via ligand-binding domain) with TRIM68. Interacts with TNK2. Interacts with USP26. Interacts with RNF6. Interacts (regulated by RNF6 probably through polyubiquitination) with RNF14; regulates AR transcriptional activity. Interacts with PRMT2 and TRIM24. Interacts with RACK1. Interacts with RANBP10; this interaction enhances dihydrotestosterone-induced AR transcriptional activity. Interacts with PRPF6 in a hormone-independent way; this interaction enhances dihydrotestosterone-induced AR transcriptional activity. Interacts with STK4/MST1. Interacts with ZIPK/DAPK3. Interacts with LPXN. Interacts with MAK. Part of a complex containing AR, MAK and NCOA3. Interacts with CRY1. Interacts with CCAR1 and GATA2. Interacts with ZNF318 (By similarity). Interacts with BUD31. Interacts with ARID4A. Interacts with ARID4B (By similarity). Interacts (via NR LBD domain) with ZBTB7A; the interaction is direct and androgen-dependent. Interacts with NCOR1. Interacts with NCOR2. Interacts with CRY2 in a ligand-dependent manner (By similarity).


Composed of three domains: a modulating N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain. In the presence of bound steroid the ligand-binding domain interacts with the N-terminal modulating domain, and thereby activates AR transcription factor activity. Agonist binding is required for dimerization and binding to target DNA. The transcription factor activity of the complex formed by ligand-activated AR and DNA is modulated by interactions with coactivator and corepressor proteins (PubMed:25091737). Interaction with RANBP9 is mediated by both the N-terminal domain and the DNA-binding domain. Interaction with EFCAB6/DJBP is mediated by the DNA-binding domain.

Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily.

Research Fields

· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Oocyte meiosis.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Pathways in cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Prostate cancer.   (View pathway)

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