Product: Connexin 43 / GJA1 Antibody
Catalog: AF0137
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Connexin 43 / GJA1
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Zebrafish, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog, Chicken, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 43kDa; 43kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P17302
RRID: AB_2833319

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:3000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC: 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(100%), Zebrafish(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(100%), Dog(100%), Chicken(100%), Xenopus(86%)
Connexin 43 / GJA1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Connexin 43 / GJA1.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF0137, RRID:AB_2833319.
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


Connexin 43; Connexin-43; Cx 43; Cx43; CXA1_HUMAN; DFNB38; Gap junction 43 kDa heart protein; Gap junction alpha-1 protein; Gap junction protein alpha 1 43kDa (connexin 43); Gap junction protein alpha 1 43kDa; Gap junction protein alpha like; GJA 1; Gja1; GJAL; ODD; ODDD; ODOD; SDTY3;


P17302 CXA1_HUMAN:

Expressed in the heart and fetal cochlea.

Cx43 an integral membrane protein of the connexin family, alpha-type (group II) subfamily. Hexamers of connexin-43 form connexons, which aggregate together to form gap junctions, through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. May play a critical role in the physiology of hearing by participating in the recycling of potassium to the cochlear endolymph.



Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - P17302 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
K9 Ubiquitination
K109 Ubiquitination
K128 Ubiquitination
K136 Ubiquitination
Y137 Phosphorylation
K144 Ubiquitination
R148 Methylation
K243 Ubiquitination
S244 Phosphorylation
Y247 Phosphorylation P12931 (SRC)
T250 Phosphorylation
S251 Phosphorylation
S255 Phosphorylation P28482 (MAPK1) , P06493 (CDK1) , P27361 (MAPK3) , Q13164 (MAPK7)
K258 Ubiquitination
S262 Phosphorylation P17252 (PRKCA)
K264 Ubiquitination
Y265 Phosphorylation P12931 (SRC)
Y267 Phosphorylation
S272 Phosphorylation
T275 Phosphorylation
S279 Phosphorylation Q16539 (MAPK14) , P28482 (MAPK1) , P27361 (MAPK3)
S282 Phosphorylation P28482 (MAPK1) , Q16539 (MAPK14) , P27361 (MAPK3) , Q13164 (MAPK7)
Y286 Phosphorylation
K287 Ubiquitination
T290 Phosphorylation
S296 Phosphorylation
S297 Phosphorylation
Y301 Phosphorylation
K303 Ubiquitination
S306 Phosphorylation
Y313 Phosphorylation
S314 Phosphorylation
S325 Phosphorylation P48730 (CSNK1D)
T326 Phosphorylation
S328 Phosphorylation P48730 (CSNK1D)
S330 Phosphorylation P48730 (CSNK1D)
S344 Phosphorylation
K345 Ubiquitination
K346 Ubiquitination
S364 Phosphorylation
S365 Phosphorylation Q02156 (PRKCE) , P17612 (PRKACA)
S368 Phosphorylation P17252 (PRKCA) , P17612 (PRKACA) , Q02156 (PRKCE) , P05771 (PRKCB) , P05129 (PRKCG) , Q05655 (PRKCD)
S369 Phosphorylation P31749 (AKT1) , Q02156 (PRKCE) , P17612 (PRKACA)
S372 Phosphorylation
S373 Phosphorylation P17612 (PRKACA) , P31749 (AKT1) , Q02156 (PRKCE)

Research Backgrounds


Gap junction protein that acts as a regulator of bladder capacity. A gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons, through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. May play a critical role in the physiology of hearing by participating in the recycling of potassium to the cochlear endolymph. Negative regulator of bladder functional capacity: acts by enhancing intercellular electrical and chemical transmission, thus sensitizing bladder muscles to cholinergic neural stimuli and causing them to contract (By similarity). May play a role in cell growth inhibition through the regulation of NOV expression and localization. Plays an essential role in gap junction communication in the ventricles (By similarity).


Phosphorylated at Ser-368 by PRKCG; phosphorylation induces disassembly of gap junction plaques and inhibition of gap junction activity (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-325, Ser-328 and Ser-330 by CK1 modulates gap junction assembly. Phosphorylation at Ser-368 by PRKCD triggers its internalization into small vesicles leading to proteasome-mediated degradation (By similarity).

Sumoylated with SUMO1, SUMO2 and SUMO3, which may regulate the level of functional Cx43 gap junctions at the plasma membrane. May be desumoylated by SENP1 or SENP2.

S-nitrosylation at Cys-271 is enriched at the muscle endothelial gap junction in arteries, it augments channel permeability and may regulate of smooth muscle cell to endothelial cell communication.

Acetylated in the developing cortex; leading to delocalization from the cell membrane.

Subcellular Location:

Cell membrane>Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction>Gap junction. Endoplasmic reticulum.
Note: Localizes at the intercalated disk (ICD) in cardiomyocytes and the proper localization at ICD is dependent on TMEM65.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Expressed in the heart and fetal cochlea.

Subunit Structure:

A connexon is composed of a hexamer of connexins. Interacts (via C-terminus) with TJP1 (By similarity). Interacts (via C-terminus) with SRC (via SH3 domain) (By similarity). Interacts (not ubiquitinated) with UBQLN4 (via UBA domain) (By similarity). Interacts with SGSM3 and CNST (By similarity). Interacts with RIC1/CIP150. Interacts with CSNK1D. Interacts with NOV. Interacts with TMEM65 (By similarity).


Belongs to the connexin family. Alpha-type (group II) subfamily.

Research Fields

· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Gap junction.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).


1). Protective effect of oxyberberine against acute lung injury in mice via inhibiting RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY (PubMed: 35753262) [IF=7.5]

2). GJA1 reverses arsenic-induced EMT via modulating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY (PubMed: 35750204) [IF=3.8]

3). Carbenoxolone has the potential to ameliorate acute incision pain in rats. Molecular Medicine Reports (PubMed: 34013377) [IF=3.4]

Application: IF/ICC    Species: rat    Sample:

Figure 4.| Co‑localization of Cx43 and GFAP in IP model rats. Immunofluorescence assay was used to evaluate the co‑localization of Cx43 (green) and GFAP(red). Magnification, x200; scale bar, 10 µm. C, control group; IP, incision pain; CBX, carbenoxolone; 10panx, pannexin‑1 mimetic inhibitory peptide; Cx43,connexin 43; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein.

4). Connexin 43 overexpression induces lung cancer angiogenesis in vitro following phosphorylation at Ser279 in its C‑terminus. Oncology Letters (PubMed: 35949588) [IF=2.9]

Application: WB    Species: Human    Sample: HPMECs

Figure 2. Relative expression levels (normalized with NC) of various proteins in different groups as determined through western blotting (the resulting data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation; *P

5). TGF-β1 and connexin-43 expression in neurogenic bladder from rats with sacral spinal cord injury. Neurourology and Urodynamics (PubMed: 30070388) [IF=2.0]

Application: WB    Species: rat    Sample: sacral spinal cord

FIGURE 2 |Changes in CX43, pCX43, TGF-β1, Smad3, pSmad3, and CX45 levels examined by Western blot in detrusor after sacral spinal injury. The density of proteins was normalized with the density of the bands of β-actin. CX43 (B) and pCX43 (C) showed a significant decrease but TGF-β1 (D), Smad3 (E), and pSmad3 (F) showed a significant increase in the bladder detrusor after SCI. Those changes were more significant in transection than in hemisection of sacral spine cord. CX45 was not changed among three groups.

6). Dapagliflozin Improves Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Modulating the Akt/MTOR Signaling Pathway. Biomed Research International (PubMed: 35928916)

Application: WB    Species: Rat    Sample:

Figure 3 Immunohistochemical staining for Cx43 (×400): A: normal control group, B: normal administration group, C: diabetes control group, D: early administration group, and E: late administration group. ∗p < 0.05 vs. A; &p > 0.05vs. A; #p < 0.05vs. C; @p < 0.05vs. D.

7). AKAP95 transports Cx43 into nucleus, regulating G1/S transition of A549 cells.. Research Square

Application: WB    Species: Human    Sample: A549 cells

AKAP95 bind to Cx43 and transfer it into nucleus during G1 phase in A549 cells.

8). Application of TEM: Dynamic changes of AKAP95-Cx43 complex during G1 phase of lung cancer cells. Research Square

Application: WB    Species: Human    Sample: A549 and Beas-2B cells

Figure1 TEM images show that AKAP95 carries Cx43 into the nucleus through nuclear pore by binding with it during G1 phase.

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