Product: DDIT3/CHOP Antibody
Catalog: AF6277
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to DDIT3/CHOP
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog
Mol.Wt.: 19~30kD; 19kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P35638
RRID: AB_2835130

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 100ul $280 In stock
 200ul $350 In stock

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(89%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(100%), Dog(100%)
DDIT3 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total DDIT3.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF6277, RRID:AB_2835130.
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


C/EBP homologous protein; C/EBP Homology Protein; C/EBP zeta; C/EBP-homologous protein 10; C/EBP-homologous protein; CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein; CEBPZ; CHOP 10; CHOP; CHOP-10; CHOP10; DDIT 3; DDIT-3; Ddit3; DDIT3_HUMAN; DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 3; DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein; GADD 153; GADD153; Growth Arrest and DNA Damage Inducible Protein 153; Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein GADD153; Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD153; MGC4154;


CHOP a transcriptional-regulatory protein of the bZIP family. Inhibits the DNA-binding activity of C/EBP and LAP by forming heterodimers that cannot bind DNA. May play an important role in melanoma progression. CK2-mediated phosphorylation inhibits its transcriptional activity.



Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - P35638 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
S14 Phosphorylation P68400 (CSNK2A1)
S15 Phosphorylation P68400 (CSNK2A1)
S30 Phosphorylation P68400 (CSNK2A1)
S31 Phosphorylation P68400 (CSNK2A1)
S49 Phosphorylation
T54 Phosphorylation
T64 Phosphorylation
S79 Phosphorylation Q16539 (MAPK14)
S82 Phosphorylation Q16539 (MAPK14)

Research Backgrounds


Multifunctional transcription factor in ER stress response. Plays an essential role in the response to a wide variety of cell stresses and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to ER stress. Plays a dual role both as an inhibitor of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) function and as an activator of other genes. Acts as a dominant-negative regulator of C/EBP-induced transcription: dimerizes with members of the C/EBP family, impairs their association with C/EBP binding sites in the promoter regions, and inhibits the expression of C/EBP regulated genes. Positively regulates the transcription of TRIB3, IL6, IL8, IL23, TNFRSF10B/DR5, PPP1R15A/GADD34, BBC3/PUMA, BCL2L11/BIM and ERO1L. Negatively regulates; expression of BCL2 and MYOD1, ATF4-dependent transcriptional activation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS), CEBPA-dependent transcriptional activation of hepcidin (HAMP) and CEBPB-mediated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). Inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by binding to TCF7L2/TCF4, impairing its DNA-binding properties and repressing its transcriptional activity. Plays a regulatory role in the inflammatory response through the induction of caspase-11 (CASP4/CASP11) which induces the activation of caspase-1 (CASP1) and both these caspases increase the activation of pro-IL1B to mature IL1B which is involved in the inflammatory response.


Ubiquitinated, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.

Phosphorylation at serine residues by MAPK14 enhances its transcriptional activation activity while phosphorylation at serine residues by CK2 inhibits its transcriptional activation activity.

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Note: Present in the cytoplasm under non-stressed conditions and ER stress leads to its nuclear accumulation.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Subunit Structure:

Heterodimer. Interacts with TCF7L2/TCF4, EP300/P300, HDAC1, HDAC5 and HDAC6. Interacts with TRIB3 which blocks its association with EP300/P300. Interacts with FOXO3, CEBPB and ATF4. Interacts with isoform AltDDIT3 of DDIT3.


The N-terminal region is necessary for its proteasomal degradation, transcriptional activity and interaction with EP300/P300.

Belongs to the bZIP family.

Research Fields

· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Apoptosis.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > MAPK signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Genetic Information Processing > Folding, sorting and degradation > Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Endocrine and metabolic diseases > Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Transcriptional misregulation in cancer.


1). Li X et al. Upregulation of BCL-2 by acridone derivative through gene promoter i-motif for alleviating liver damage of NAFLD/NASH. NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH 2020 Jul 25;gkaa615. (PubMed: 32710621) [IF=14.9]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: liver

Figure 7. Effect of A22 on ameliorating apoptosis, ER stress, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and fibrogenesis in HF diet-fed mice. (A) Effect of A22 on BCL-2 gene transcription. (B) Effect of A22 on BAX gene transcription. (C) Effect of A22 on expressions of apoptosis-related proteins in liver. The extracted proteins from the liver were immunoblotted with specific antibodies, and quantified based on the loading control of ACTIN. (D) Effect of A22 on ER stress. The UPR proteins (IRE-1, PERK, elF-2 and CHOP) were analyzed by using western Blot. (E) Effect of A22 on expressions of inflammatory factors. (F) Effect of A22 on expressions of fibrogenic proteins.

2). Yong Rao et al. Gut Akkermansia muciniphila ameliorates metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease by regulating the metabolism of L-aspartate via gut-liver axis. Gut Microbes 2021;13(1):1-19. (PubMed: 34030573) [IF=12.2]

Application: IHC    Species: Mice    Sample: ileum

Figure 2. A. muciniphila increased markers related to lipid metabolism in liver and gut of HFC mice. HFC induced obese MAFLD (11 weeks of feeding) were administered with saline as the control or A. muciniphila (6 weeks of treatment) to assess liver and ileum parameters: a-c for parameters in the liver and d-f for parameters in the ileum. e-g, representative images of the ileum (Scale bar, for 100 µm). (a) Hepatic mitochondrial copy number determination. (b) Gene expression related to lipid uptake and oxidation in the liver of mice. (c) Protein levels of metabolic regulators mitochondrial complexes, and the LKB1-AMPK axis in the liver of mice. The protein levels were quantified and normalized to the loading control actin (d) Gene expression of lipid uptake and oxidation in the ileum of mice. The gene level or protein level in the HFC group was set as 1, and the relative fold increases were determined by comparison with the HFC control group. (e) Immunohistochemistry analysis of PGC-1α in the ileum of mice. The brown dot indicates the examined protein. Representative images were captured. Scale bar, 100 µm. (f) TG level quantification (indicated by oil red O staining) and oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis determination (indicated by CHOP examination) in the ileum. Representative images were captured. Scale bar, 100 µm. (g) Immunohistochemistry analysis of E-cadherin and H

3). Mo C et al. Development of erianin-loaded dendritic mesoporous silica nanospheres with pro-apoptotic effects and enhanced topical delivery. JOURNAL OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY 2020 Mar 30;18(1):55 (PubMed: 32228604) [IF=10.2]

Application: WB    Species: Human    Sample: HaCaT cells

Fig. 5 Efect of erianin and E/DMSNs on cytosolic calcium levels and ERS signaling pathway. a Flow cytometry analysis of cytosolic calcium levels in HaCaT cells after treatment with erianin and E/DMSNs for 24 h. b Relative MFI of control in (a) analyzed by fow cytometry. c The expressions of PERK, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP proteins after treatment with erianin and E/DMSNs for 24 h. d Quantitation of PERK, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP proteins normalized to β-actin in (c) by using Image J software. Values are represented as means±SD (n=3). *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.001, signifcantly diferent compared with the erianin group. ##p<0.01, ###p<0.005, ####p<0.001, signifcantly diferent compared with the control group

Application: WB    Species: Human    Sample: HaCaT cells

Fig. 5 Effect of erianin and E/DMSNs on cytosolic calcium levels and ERS signaling pathway. a Flow cytometry analysis of cytosolic calcium levels in HaCaT cells after treatment with erianin and E/DMSNs for 24 h. b Relative MFI of control in (a) analyzed by flow cytometry. c The expressions of PERK, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP proteins after treatment with erianin and E/DMSNs for 24 h. d Quantitation of PERK, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP proteins normalized to β-actin in (c) by using Image J software. Values are represented as means ± SD (n = 3). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.005, ****p < 0.001, significantly different compared with the erianin group. ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.005, ####p < 0.001, significantly different compared with the control group

4). Liu Z et al. WITHDRAWN: Decreased level of endogenous ghrelin is involved in the progression of lung injury induced by oleic acid. LIFE SCIENCES 2016 Nov 25 (PubMed: 27894854) [IF=6.1]

Application: WB    Species: rat    Sample:

Fig. 4 Protein and mRNA levels of ghrelin in rat lung tissue and plasma. Protein levels of ghrelin in a) lung and b) plasma; c) mRNA expression of ghrelin in lung. Used control level of RNA as 1 and the other treatments relative to the control value (arbitrary units). * p < 0.05 vs. control; # p < 0.05 vs. OA; & p < 0.05 vs. OA + ghrelin. (n = 8 per group)

5). Hao W et al. Stellate ganglion block ameliorates vascular calcification by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. LIFE SCIENCES 2018 Jan 15;193:1-8 (PubMed: 29208463) [IF=6.1]

6). Chen X et al. Oleic acid protects saturated fatty acid mediated lipotoxicity in hepatocytes and rat of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. LIFE SCIENCES 2018 Jun 15;203:291-304 (PubMed: 29709653) [IF=6.1]

7). Su R et al. The potential immunotoxicity of fine particulate matter based on SD rat spleen. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH 2019 Aug;26(23):23958-23966 (PubMed: 31218585) [IF=5.8]

Application: WB    Species: rat    Sample: spleen

Fig. 4 |PM2.5 exposure induce ERS via the apoptosis of spleen.a, b The levels of spleen caspase12 and CHOP mRNA were measured using qRT-PCR in summer and winter PM2.5 treatment in SD rats. c, d Western blot assays were used to detect the protein levels of caspase-12 and CHOP in spleen by summer PM2.5 treated and quantification of analysis.

8). Ding L et al. Chrysin ameliorates synovitis and fibrosis of osteoarthritic fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rats through PERK/TXNIP/NLRP3 signaling. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2023 Mar 20;14:1170243. (PubMed: 37021049) [IF=5.6]

9). Li L et al. Mesenchymal stromal cells protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity through alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by restoring SERCA activity. JOURNAL OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE 2021 Feb 16. (PubMed: 33591626) [IF=5.3]

10). Yuan Q et al. MiR-185-5p ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum stress and renal fibrosis by downregulation of ATF6. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 2020 Jun 8. (PubMed: 32514126) [IF=5.0]

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: HK2 cells

Fig. 2| MiR-185-5p alleviates the degree of endoplasmic reticulum stress in TGF-β1-induced HK2 cells. a Real-time PCR analysis of miR-185-5p in TGF-β1-induced HK2 cells.b Western blot analysis ofATF6, GRP78, and CHOP proteins in HK2 cells that were transfected with miR-185-5p mimics or scrambled RNA (NC)after TGF-β1 treatment.c–e Quantitative analysis of the relative protein level in (b).

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