Product: pan-FOXO1/3/4 Antibody
Catalog: AF6419
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to pan-FOXO1/3/4
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Dog, Chicken, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 78kDa; 70kD,54kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: Q12778 | P98177
RRID: AB_2835249

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(100%), Bovine(100%), Dog(100%), Chicken(100%), Xenopus(100%)
pan-FOXO1/3/4 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total pan-FOXO1/3/4.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF6419, RRID:AB_2835249.
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


FKH 1; FKH1; FKHR; Forkhead (Drosophila) homolog 1 (rhabdomyosarcoma); Forkhead box O1; Forkhead box protein O1; Forkhead box protein O1A; Forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma; Forkhead, Drosophila, homolog of, in rhabdomyosarcoma; FoxO transcription factor; foxo1; FOXO1_HUMAN; FOXO1A; OTTHUMP00000018301; AFX; AFX1; Afxh; ALL1-fused gene from X chromosome; Fork head domain transcription factor AFX1; Forkhead box O4; Forkhead box protein O4; FOXO 4; Foxo4; FOXO4_HUMAN; MGC117660; MGC120490; Mixed lineage leukemia, translocated to, 7; MLLT7; Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila); translocated to, 7; Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed lineage leukemia, translocated to, 7; RGD1561201;





Heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Isoform zeta is most abundant in the liver, kidney, and pancreas.

FOXO4 transcription factor AFX1 containing 1 fork-head domain. May play a role in the insulin signaling pathway. Involved in acute leukemias by a chromosomal translocation t(X;11)(q13;q23) that involves MLLT7 and MLL/HRX. The result is a rogue activator protein.




Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - Q12778/P98177 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
S26 Phosphorylation
S30 Phosphorylation
T32 Phosphorylation P31749 (AKT1) , P31751 (AKT2)
S111 Phosphorylation
K151 Ubiquitination
S159 Phosphorylation
K186 Acetylation
K189 Acetylation
S197 Phosphorylation P31749 (AKT1)
S200 Phosphorylation
T227 Phosphorylation P45983 (MAPK8)
S230 Phosphorylation P45983 (MAPK8)
S241 Phosphorylation
S244 Phosphorylation
S261 Phosphorylation
S262 Phosphorylation P31749 (AKT1)
S265 Phosphorylation
S268 Phosphorylation
S272 Phosphorylation
S278 Phosphorylation
S288 Phosphorylation
Y292 Phosphorylation
K407 Acetylation
T451 Phosphorylation P45983 (MAPK8) , P45984 (MAPK9)
T455 Phosphorylation P45984 (MAPK9) , P45983 (MAPK8)
T458 Phosphorylation
Site PTM Type Enzyme
T24 Phosphorylation P31751 (AKT2) , P31749 (AKT1) , P11309-2 (PIM1) , PR:P31749 (hAKT1)
S152 Phosphorylation
S153 Phosphorylation
S164 Phosphorylation
T182 Phosphorylation
S184 Phosphorylation
S205 Phosphorylation
K210 Ubiquitination
S212 Phosphorylation Q13043 (STK4)
S215 Phosphorylation
S218 Phosphorylation
K222 Acetylation
S234 Phosphorylation
S235 Phosphorylation
K245 Acetylation
S246 Phosphorylation P28482 (MAPK1)
K248 Acetylation
S249 Phosphorylation P06493 (CDK1) , Q00535 (CDK5) , P24941 (CDK2) , P11802 (CDK4)
R251 Methylation
R253 Methylation
S256 Phosphorylation PR:P31749 (hAKT1) , Q13153 (PAK1) , Q16512 (PKN1) , P31749 (AKT1) , P31751 (AKT2) , P11309-2 (PIM1)
K262 Acetylation
K265 Acetylation
K274 Acetylation
S276 Phosphorylation
S287 Phosphorylation
S293 Phosphorylation
K294 Acetylation
S298 Phosphorylation
S301 Phosphorylation
S303 Phosphorylation
T317 O-Glycosylation
S318 O-Glycosylation
S319 Phosphorylation PR:P31749 (hAKT1) , Q13237 (PRKG2) , P31749 (AKT1) , P11309-2 (PIM1)
S322 Phosphorylation P48729 (CSNK1A1) , Q9HCP0 (CSNK1G1)
T323 Phosphorylation
S325 Phosphorylation P48729 (CSNK1A1) , P49841 (GSK3B)
S329 Phosphorylation Q9UBE8 (NLK) , Q13627 (DYRK1A)
T333 Phosphorylation
S383 Phosphorylation
S394 Phosphorylation
T402 Phosphorylation
S413 Phosphorylation P28482 (MAPK1)
S416 Phosphorylation Q16539 (MAPK14)
S418 Phosphorylation P28482 (MAPK1)
S429 Phosphorylation P28482 (MAPK1)
S430 Phosphorylation
S432 Phosphorylation Q16539 (MAPK14)
T467 Phosphorylation
S470 Phosphorylation P28482 (MAPK1) , Q16539 (MAPK14)
T478 Phosphorylation Q16539 (MAPK14) , P28482 (MAPK1)
S505 Phosphorylation
S509 Phosphorylation
S550 O-Glycosylation
T560 Phosphorylation Q16539 (MAPK14) , P28482 (MAPK1)
K597 Acetylation
T648 O-Glycosylation
T649 Phosphorylation Q13131 (PRKAA1)
S651 Phosphorylation
S654 O-Glycosylation

Research Backgrounds


Transcription factor that is the main target of insulin signaling and regulates metabolic homeostasis in response to oxidative stress. Binds to the insulin response element (IRE) with consensus sequence 5'-TT[G/A]TTTTG-3' and the related Daf-16 family binding element (DBE) with consensus sequence 5'-TT[G/A]TTTAC-3'. Activity suppressed by insulin. Main regulator of redox balance and osteoblast numbers and controls bone mass. Orchestrates the endocrine function of the skeleton in regulating glucose metabolism. Acts synergistically with ATF4 to suppress osteocalcin/BGLAP activity, increasing glucose levels and triggering glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. Also suppresses the transcriptional activity of RUNX2, an upstream activator of osteocalcin/BGLAP. In hepatocytes, promotes gluconeogenesis by acting together with PPARGC1A and CEBPA to activate the expression of genes such as IGFBP1, G6PC and PCK1. Important regulator of cell death acting downstream of CDK1, PKB/AKT1 and STK4/MST1. Promotes neural cell death. Mediates insulin action on adipose tissue. Regulates the expression of adipogenic genes such as PPARG during preadipocyte differentiation and, adipocyte size and adipose tissue-specific gene expression in response to excessive calorie intake. Regulates the transcriptional activity of GADD45A and repair of nitric oxide-damaged DNA in beta-cells. Required for the autophagic cell death induction in response to starvation or oxidative stress in a transcription-independent manner. Mediates the function of MLIP in cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling (By similarity).


Phosphorylation by NLK promotes nuclear export and inhibits the transcriptional activity. In response to growth factors, phosphorylation on Thr-24, Ser-256 and Ser-322 by PKB/AKT1 promotes nuclear export and inactivation of transactivational activity. Phosphorylation on Thr-24 is required for binding 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of Ser-256 decreases DNA-binding activity and promotes the phosphorylation of Thr-24 and Ser-319, permitting phosphorylation of Ser-322 and Ser-325, probably by CDK1, leading to nuclear exclusion and loss of function. Stress signals, such as response to oxygen or nitric oxide, attenuate the PKB/AKT1-mediated phosphorylation leading to nuclear retention. Phosphorylation of Ser-329 is independent of IGF1 and leads to reduced function. Dephosphorylated on Thr-24 and Ser-256 by PP2A in beta-cells under oxidative stress leading to nuclear retention (By similarity). Phosphorylation of Ser-249 by CDK1 disrupts binding of 14-3-3 proteins leading to nuclear accumulation and has no effect on DNA-binding nor transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation by STK4/MST1 on Ser-212, upon oxidative stress, inhibits binding to 14-3-3 proteins and nuclear export.

Acetylated. Acetylation at Lys-262, Lys-265 and Lys-274 are necessary for autophagic cell death induction. Deacetylated by SIRT2 in response to oxidative stress or serum deprivation, thereby negatively regulating FOXO1-mediated autophagic cell death.

Ubiquitinated by SKP2. Ubiquitination leads to proteasomal degradation.

Methylation inhibits AKT1-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-256 and is increased by oxidative stress.

Once in the nucleus, acetylated by CREBBP/EP300. Acetylation diminishes the interaction with target DNA and attenuates the transcriptional activity. It increases the phosphorylation at Ser-256. Deacetylation by SIRT1 results in reactivation of the transcriptional activity. Oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide treatment appears to promote deacetylation and uncoupling of insulin-induced phosphorylation. By contrast, resveratrol acts independently of acetylation.

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Note: Shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Largely nuclear in unstimulated cells. In osteoblasts, colocalizes with ATF4 and RUNX2 in the nucleus (By similarity). Insulin-induced phosphorylation at Ser-256 by PKB/AKT1 leads, via stimulation of Thr-24 phosphorylation, to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and nuclear export to the cytoplasm where it is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteosomal pathway. Phosphorylation at Ser-249 by CDK1 disrupts binding of 14-3-3 proteins and promotes nuclear accumulation. Phosphorylation by NLK results in nuclear export. Translocates to the nucleus upon oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation at Ser-212 by STK4/MST1. SGK1-mediated phosphorylation also results in nuclear translocation. Retained in the nucleus under stress stimuli including oxidative stress, nutrient deprivation or nitric oxide. Retained in the nucleus on methylation.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:


Subunit Structure:

Interacts with LRPPRC. Interacts with RUNX2; the interaction inhibits RUNX2 transcriptional activity and mediates the IGF1/insulin-dependent BGLAP expression in osteoblasts Interacts with PPP2R1A; the interaction regulates the dephosphorylation of FOXO1 at Thr-24 and Ser-256 leading to its nuclear import. Interacts (acetylated form) with PPARG. Interacts with XBP1 isoform 2; this interaction is direct and leads to FOXO1 ubiquitination and degradation via the proteasome pathway (By similarity). Interacts with NLK. Interacts with SIRT1; the interaction results in the deacetylation of FOXO1 leading to activation of FOXO1-mediated transcription of genes involved in DNA repair and stress resistance. Binds to CDK1. Interacts with the 14-3-3 proteins, YWHAG and YWHAZ; the interactions require insulin-stimulated phosphorylation on Thr-24, promote nuclear exit and loss of transcriptional activity. Interacts with SKP2; the interaction ubiquitinates FOXO1 leading to its proteosomal degradation. The interaction requires the presence of KRIT1. Interacts (via the C-terminal half) with ATF4 (via its DNA-binding domain); the interaction occurs in osteoblasts, regulates glucose homeostasis via suppression of beta-cell proliferation and subsequent decrease in insulin production. Interacts with PRMT1; the interaction methylates FOXO1, prevents PKB/AKT1 phosphorylation and retains FOXO1 in the nucleus. Interacts with EP300 and CREBBP; the interactions acetylate FOXO1. Interacts with SIRT2; the interaction is disrupted in response to oxidative stress or serum deprivation, leading to increased level of acetylated FOXO1, which promotes stress-induced autophagy by stimulating E1-like activating enzyme ATG7. Interacts (acetylated form) with ATG7; the interaction is increased in response to oxidative stress or serum deprivation and promotes the autophagic process leading to cell death. Interacts (via the Fork-head domain) with CEBPA; the interaction increases when FOXO1 is deacetylated. Interacts with WDFY2. Forms a complex with WDFY2 and AKT1 (By similarity). Interacts with CRY1 (By similarity).


Transcription factor involved in the regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. Binds to insulin-response elements (IREs) and can activate transcription of IGFBP1. Down-regulates expression of HIF1A and suppresses hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation of HIF1A-modulated genes. Also involved in negative regulation of the cell cycle. Involved in increased proteasome activity in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by activating expression of PSMD11 in ESCs, leading to enhanced assembly of the 26S proteasome, followed by higher proteasome activity.


Acetylation by CREBBP/CBP, which is induced by peroxidase stress, inhibits transcriptional activity. Deacetylation by SIRT1 is NAD-dependent and stimulates transcriptional activity.

Phosphorylation by PKB/AKT1 inhibits transcriptional activity and is responsible for cytoplasmic localization. May be phosphorylated at multiple sites by NLK.

Monoubiquitinated; monoubiquitination is induced by oxidative stress and reduced by deacetylase inhibitors; results in its relocalization to the nucleus and its increased transcriptional activity. Deubiquitinated by USP7; deubiquitination is induced by oxidative stress; enhances its interaction with USP7 and consequently, deubiquitination; increases its translocation to the cytoplasm and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Hydrogene-peroxide-induced ubiquitination and USP7-mediated deubiquitination have no major effect on its protein stability.

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Note: When phosphorylated, translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm. Dephosphorylation triggers nuclear translocation. Monoubiquitination increases nuclear localization. When deubiquitinated, translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Isoform zeta is most abundant in the liver, kidney, and pancreas.

Subunit Structure:

Interacts with CREBBP/CBP, CTNNB1, MYOCD, SIRT1, SRF and YWHAZ. Acetylated by CREBBP/CBP and deacetylated by SIRT1. Binding of YWHAZ inhibits DNA-binding. Interacts with USP7; the interaction is enhanced in presence of hydrogen peroxide and occurs independently of TP53. Interacts with NLK, and this inhibits monoubiquitination and transcriptional activity. Interacts with FOXK1; the interaction inhibits MEF2C transactivation activity (By similarity).

Research Fields

· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Cellular senescence.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Ras signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > FoxO signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > AMPK signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Endocrine and metabolic diseases > Insulin resistance.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Human papillomavirus infection.

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Pathways in cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Transcriptional misregulation in cancer.

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Prostate cancer.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Aging > Longevity regulating pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Aging > Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Insulin signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Thyroid hormone signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Glucagon signaling pathway.


1). Caffeic acid dimethyl ether alleviates alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis via microRNA-378b-mediated CaMKK2-AMPK pathway. Bioengineered, 2022 (PubMed: 35481488) [IF=4.9]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: livers

Figure 5: |CADE regulates lipid synthesis, decomposition and transport through miR-378b in C57BL/6 mice. (a,b) Western blot analysis of the protein expressions of SREBP-1c, FASN, PPARα, CPT1, MTTP and protein ratio of p-foxO1/foxO1 when the mice were injected with AAV-miR-378b agomir and antagomir. All data are expressed as the means ± SD of at least three separate experiments.

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