TLR4 Antibody - #AF7017
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.
WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF7017, RRID:AB_2835322.
ARMD10; CD284; CD284 antigen; Homolog of Drosophila toll; hToll; TLR 4; TLR4; TLR4_HUMAN; TOLL; Toll like receptor 4; Toll-like receptor 4;
Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes (PubMed:9435236, PubMed:9237759). Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells (PubMed:9237759, PubMed:27022195).
PTMs - O00206 As Substrate
Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific. Both M.tuberculosis HSP70 (dnaK) and HSP65 (groEL-2) act via this protein to stimulate NF-kappa-B expression. In complex with TLR6, promotes sterile inflammation in monocytes/macrophages in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or amyloid-beta 42. In this context, the initial signal is provided by oxLDL- or amyloid-beta 42-binding to CD36. This event induces the formation of a heterodimer of TLR4 and TLR6, which is rapidly internalized and triggers inflammatory response, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine, via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion. Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-). Stimulation of monocytes in vitro with M.tuberculosis PstS1 induces p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation primarily via TLR2, but also partially via this receptor.
N-glycosylated. Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. Likewise, mutants lacking two or more of the other N-glycosylation sites were deficient in interaction with LPS.
Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by LYN after binding lipopolysaccharide.
Cell membrane>Single-pass type I membrane protein. Early endosome. Cell projection>Ruffle.
Note: Upon complex formation with CD36 and TLR6, internalized through dynamin-dependent endocytosis (PubMed:20037584). Colocalizes with RFTN1 at cell membrane and then together with RFTN1 moves to endosomes, upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation.
Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells.
Belongs to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, a multi-protein complex containing at least CD14, LY96 and TLR4. Binding to bacterial LPS leads to homodimerization. Interacts with LY96 via the extracellular domain. Interacts with MYD88 and TIRAP via their respective TIR domains (By similarity). Interacts with TICAM2. Interacts with NOX4. Interacts with CNPY3 (By similarity). Interacts with HSP90B1. The interaction with both CNPY3 and HSP90B1 is required for proper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Interacts with MAP3K21; this interaction leads to negative regulation of TLR4 signaling. Interacts with CD36, following CD36 stimulation by oxLDL or amyloid-beta 42, and forms a heterodimer with TLR6. The trimeric complex is internalized and triggers inflammatory response. LYN kinase activity facilitates TLR4-TLR6 heterodimerization and signal initiation. Interacts with TICAM1 in response to LPS in a WDFY1-dependent manner. Interacts with WDFY1 in response to LPS (By similarity). Interacts with SMPDL3B (By similarity). Interacts with CEACAM1; upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, forms a complex including TLR4 and the phosphorylated form of SYK and CEACAM1, which in turn, recruits PTPN6 that dephosphorylates SYK, reducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lysosome disruption, which in turn, reduces the activity of the inflammasome (By similarity). Interacts with RFTN1; the interaction occurs in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Interacts with SCIMP; the interaction occurs in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation and is enhanced by phosphorylation of SCIMP by LYN (By similarity). This interaction facilitates the phosphorylation of TLR4 by LYN which elicits a selective cytokine response in macrophages (By similarity).
(Microbial infection) In case of infection, interacts with uropathogenic E.coli protein TcpC.
The TIR domain mediates interaction with NOX4.
The TIR domain mediates NAD(+) hydrolase (NADase) activity. Self-association of TIR domains is required for NADase activity.
Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Salmonella infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pertussis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Legionellosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Leishmaniasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Malaria.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Toxoplasmosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Amoebiasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Hepatitis B.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Measles.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Influenza A.
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Rheumatoid arthritis.
Application: WB Species: rat Sample: knee joints
Application: WB Species: Mice Sample: colonic tissues
Application: WB Species: Mice Sample:
Application: WB Species: rat Sample: spinal dorsal horn
Application: WB Species: mouse Sample: hippocampus
Application: IF/ICC Species: mouse Sample: BV2 cells
Application: WB Species: Mouse Sample: Hep2 cells
Application: WB Species: human Sample: Hep2 cells
Application: WB Species: mouse Sample: macrophages
Application: WB Species: Rat Sample:
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