Product: Phospho-beta Catenin (Ser37) Antibody
Catalog: AF3266
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Phospho-beta Catenin (Ser37)
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Zebrafish, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog, Chicken, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 92kDa; 85kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P35222
RRID: AB_2834692

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(100%), Zebrafish(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(100%), Dog(100%), Chicken(100%), Xenopus(100%)
Phospho-beta Catenin (Ser37) Antibody detects endogenous levels of beta Catenin only when phosphorylated at Serine 37.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF3266, RRID:AB_2834692.
The antibody is from purified rabbit serum by affinity purification via sequential chromatography on phospho-peptide and non-phospho-peptide affinity columns.
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


Beta catenin; Beta-catenin; Cadherin associated protein; Catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa; Catenin beta 1; Catenin beta-1; CATNB; CHBCAT; CTNB1_HUMAN; CTNNB; CTNNB1; DKFZp686D02253; FLJ25606; FLJ37923; OTTHUMP00000162082; OTTHUMP00000165222; OTTHUMP00000165223; OTTHUMP00000209288; OTTHUMP00000209289;



Expressed in several hair follicle cell types: basal and peripheral matrix cells, and cells of the outer and inner root sheaths. Expressed in colon. Present in cortical neurons (at protein level). Expressed in breast cancer tissues (at protein level) (PubMed:29367600).

Beta-catenin is an adherens junction protein. Adherens junctions (AJs; also called the zonula adherens) are critical for the establishment and maintenance of epithelial layers, such as those lining organ surfaces. AJs mediate adhesion between cells, communicate a signal that neighboring cells are present, and anchor the actin cytoskeleton. In serving these roles, AJs regulate normal cell growth and behavior.



Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - P35222 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
A2 Acetylation
K19 Acetylation
K19 Ubiquitination
S23 O-Glycosylation
S23 Phosphorylation
S29 Phosphorylation P68400 (CSNK2A1) , P67870 (CSNK2B) , P19784 (CSNK2A2)
Y30 Phosphorylation
S33 Phosphorylation O15111 (CHUK) , P49841 (GSK3B) , P45983 (MAPK8) , Q9H2X6 (HIPK2) , P49840 (GSK3A)
S37 Phosphorylation P49840 (GSK3A) , P45983 (MAPK8) , P49841 (GSK3B) , O15111 (CHUK) , Q9H2X6 (HIPK2)
T41 Phosphorylation P49840 (GSK3A) , P45983 (MAPK8) , O15111 (CHUK) , P49841 (GSK3B)
S45 Phosphorylation O15111 (CHUK) , P48730 (CSNK1D) , P17612 (PRKACA) , P48729 (CSNK1A1) , P49674 (CSNK1E) , Q8N752 (CSNK1A1L) , Q00534 (CDK6) , Q05513 (PRKCZ)
S47 Phosphorylation
K49 Acetylation
K49 Methylation
K49 Ubiquitination
Y64 Phosphorylation Q13882 (PTK6)
S73 Phosphorylation
Y86 Phosphorylation P00519 (ABL1) , P12931 (SRC)
T102 Phosphorylation P68400 (CSNK2A1) , P19784 (CSNK2A2) , P67870 (CSNK2B)
T112 Phosphorylation Q15139 (PRKD1) , P67870 (CSNK2B) , P19784 (CSNK2A2) , P68400 (CSNK2A1)
T120 Phosphorylation Q15139 (PRKD1)
K133 Ubiquitination
Y142 Phosphorylation P04629 (NTRK1) , Q13882 (PTK6) , P21802 (FGFR2) , P22607 (FGFR3) , P06241 (FYN) , P16591 (FER) , P00533 (EGFR)
K158 Ubiquitination
K170 Ubiquitination
S179 Phosphorylation
K180 Ubiquitination
S191 Phosphorylation P45984 (MAPK9) , Q00535 (CDK5)
S196 Phosphorylation
S222 Phosphorylation
K233 Ubiquitination
S246 Phosphorylation Q00535 (CDK5)
K288 Ubiquitination
Y331 Phosphorylation Q13882 (PTK6)
T332 Phosphorylation Q9UQM7 (CAMK2A) , Q13554 (CAMK2B)
Y333 Phosphorylation P12931 (SRC) , Q13882 (PTK6)
K335 Ubiquitination
K345 Acetylation
K345 Ubiquitination
K354 Acetylation
K354 Ubiquitination
T393 Phosphorylation P68400 (CSNK2A1)
K394 Ubiquitination
K435 Acetylation
K435 Ubiquitination
T461 Phosphorylation
T472 Phosphorylation Q13554 (CAMK2B) , Q9UQM7 (CAMK2A)
S473 Phosphorylation
Y489 Phosphorylation P00519 (ABL1)
K496 Ubiquitination
K508 Ubiquitination
T510 Phosphorylation
C520 S-Nitrosylation
T547 Phosphorylation
T551 Phosphorylation
S552 Phosphorylation Q9UQM7 (CAMK2A) , P17612 (PRKACA) , P54646 (PRKAA2) , P31751 (AKT2) , Q13554 (CAMK2B) , P31749 (AKT1)
T556 Phosphorylation
T574 Phosphorylation
S605 Phosphorylation P53778 (MAPK12) , P45984 (MAPK9)
K625 Ubiquitination
S646 Phosphorylation
T653 Phosphorylation
Y654 Phosphorylation P07949 (RET) , P04626 (ERBB2) , P00533 (EGFR) , P00519 (ABL1) , P36888 (FLT3) , P12931 (SRC)
S663 Phosphorylation
Y670 Phosphorylation
K671 Ubiquitination
S675 Phosphorylation O96013 (PAK4) , Q13153 (PAK1) , P17612 (PRKACA)
T679 Phosphorylation
S680 Phosphorylation
S715 Phosphorylation Q05655 (PRKCD)
Y716 Phosphorylation
S718 Phosphorylation P53350 (PLK1)
S721 Phosphorylation
Y724 Phosphorylation
Y748 Phosphorylation

Research Backgrounds


Key downstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In the presence of Wnt ligand, CTNNB1 is not ubiquitinated and accumulates in the nucleus, where it acts as a coactivator for transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, leading to activate Wnt responsive genes. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion, as component of an E-cadherin:catenin adhesion complex. Acts as a negative regulator of centrosome cohesion. Involved in the CDK2/PTPN6/CTNNB1/CEACAM1 pathway of insulin internalization. Blocks anoikis of malignant kidney and intestinal epithelial cells and promotes their anchorage-independent growth by down-regulating DAPK2. Disrupts PML function and PML-NB formation by inhibiting RANBP2-mediated sumoylation of PML. Promotes neurogenesis by maintaining sympathetic neuroblasts within the cell cycle (By similarity).


Phosphorylation at Ser-552 by AMPK promotes stabilizion of the protein, enhancing TCF/LEF-mediated transcription (By similarity). Phosphorylation by GSK3B requires prior phosphorylation of Ser-45 by another kinase. Phosphorylation proceeds then from Thr-41 to Ser-37 and Ser-33. Phosphorylated by NEK2. EGF stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation on Tyr-654 decreases CDH1 binding and enhances TBP binding. Phosphorylated on Ser-33 and Ser-37 by HIPK2 and GSK3B, this phosphorylation triggers proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylation on Ser-191 and Ser-246 by CDK5. Phosphorylation by CDK2 regulates insulin internalization. Phosphorylation by PTK6 at Tyr-64, Tyr-142, Tyr-331 and/or Tyr-333 with the predominant site at Tyr-64 is not essential for inhibition of transcriptional activity.

Ubiquitinated by the SCF(BTRC) E3 ligase complex when phosphorylated by GSK3B, leading to its degradation. Ubiquitinated by a E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing UBE2D1, SIAH1, CACYBP/SIP, SKP1, APC and TBL1X, leading to its subsequent proteasomal degradation (By similarity).

S-nitrosylation at Cys-619 within adherens junctions promotes VEGF-induced, NO-dependent endothelial cell permeability by disrupting interaction with E-cadherin, thus mediating disassembly adherens junctions.

O-glycosylation at Ser-23 decreases nuclear localization and transcriptional activity, and increases localization to the plasma membrane and interaction with E-cadherin CDH1.

Deacetylated at Lys-49 by SIRT1.

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton. Cell junction>Adherens junction. Cell junction. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton>Microtubule organizing center>Centrosome. Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton>Spindle pole. Cell junction>Synapse. Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton>Cilium basal body.
Note: Colocalized with RAPGEF2 and TJP1 at cell-cell contacts (By similarity). Cytoplasmic when it is unstabilized (high level of phosphorylation) or bound to CDH1. Translocates to the nucleus when it is stabilized (low level of phosphorylation). Interaction with GLIS2 and MUC1 promotes nuclear translocation. Interaction with EMD inhibits nuclear localization. The majority of beta-catenin is localized to the cell membrane. In interphase, colocalizes with CROCC between CEP250 puncta at the proximal end of centrioles, and this localization is dependent on CROCC and CEP250. In mitosis, when NEK2 activity increases, it localizes to centrosomes at spindle poles independent of CROCC. Colocalizes with CDK5 in the cell-cell contacts and plasma membrane of undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cells. Interaction with FAM53B promotes translocation to the nucleus (PubMed:25183871).

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Expressed in several hair follicle cell types: basal and peripheral matrix cells, and cells of the outer and inner root sheaths. Expressed in colon. Present in cortical neurons (at protein level). Expressed in breast cancer tissues (at protein level).

Subunit Structure:

Two separate complex-associated pools are found in the cytoplasm. The majority is present as component of an E-cadherin:catenin adhesion complex composed of at least E-cadherin/CDH1 and beta-catenin/CTNNB1, and possibly alpha-catenin/CTNNA1; the complex is located to adherens junctions. The stable association of CTNNA1 is controversial as CTNNA1 was shown not to bind to F-actin when assembled in the complex. Alternatively, the CTNNA1-containing complex may be linked to F-actin by other proteins such as LIMA1. Another cytoplasmic pool is part of a large complex containing AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Wnt-dependent activation of DVL antagonizes the action of GSK3B. When GSK3B activity is inhibited the complex dissociates, CTNNB1 is dephosphorylated and is no longer targeted for destruction. The stabilized protein translocates to the nucleus, where it binds TCF/LEF-1 family members, TBP, BCL9, BCL9L and possibly also RUVBL1 and CHD8. Binds CTNNBIP and EP300. CTNNB1 forms a ternary complex with LEF1 and EP300 that is disrupted by CTNNBIP1 binding. Interacts with TAX1BP3 (via the PDZ domain); this interaction inhibits the transcriptional activity of CTNNB1. Interacts with AJAP1, BAIAP1, CARM1, CTNNA3, CXADR and PCDH11Y. Binds SLC9A3R1. Interacts with GLIS2 and MUC1. Interacts with SLC30A9. Interacts with XIRP1. Interacts directly with AXIN1; the interaction is regulated by CDK2 phosphorylation of AXIN1. Interacts with SCRIB. Interacts with RAPGEF2. Interacts with PTPRU (via the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain). Interacts with EMD. Interacts with TNIK and TCF7L2. Interacts with SESTD1 and TRPC4. Interacts with CAV1. Interacts with TRPV4. The TRPV4 and CTNNB1 complex can interact with CDH1. Interacts with VCL. Interacts with PTPRJ. Interacts with PKT7 and CDK2. Interacts with FAT1 (via the cytoplasmic domain). Interacts with NANOS1 and NDRG2. Interacts with isoform 1 of NEK2. Interacts with both isoform 1 and isoform 2 of CDK5. Interacts with PTK6. Interacts with SOX7; this interaction may lead to proteasomal degradation of active CTNNB1 and thus inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin-stimulated transcription. Identified in a complex with HINT1 and MITF. Interacts with FHIT. The CTNNB1 and TCF7L2/TCF4 complex interacts with PML (isoform PML-4). Interacts with FERMT2. Identified in a complex with TCF7L2/TCF4 and FERMT2. Interacts with RORA. May interact with P-cadherin/CDH3. Interacts with RNF220. Interacts with CTNND2. Interacts (via the C-terminal region) with CBY1. The complex composed, at least, of APC, CTNNB1 and GSK3B interacts with JPT1; the interaction requires the inactive form of GSK3B (phosphorylated at 'Ser-9'). Interacts with DLG5 (By similarity). Interacts with FAM53B; promoting translocation to the nucleus. Interacts with TMEM170B. Interacts with AHI1. Interacts with GID8. Component of an cadherin:catenin adhesion complex composed of at least of CDH26, beta-catenin/CTNNB1, alpha-catenin/CTNNA1 and p120 catenin/CTNND1. Forms a complex comprising APPL1, RUVBL2, APPL2, HDAC1 and HDAC2. Interacts with IRF2BPL; mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of CTNNB1. Interacts with AMFR (By similarity). Interacts with LMBR1L. Interacts with SOX30; prevents interaction of CTNNB1 with TCF7L2/TCF4 and leads to inhibition of Wnt signaling.

(Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes virus 8 protein vPK; this interaction inhibits the Wnt signaling pathway.


Belongs to the beta-catenin family.

Research Fields

· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Focal adhesion.   (View pathway)

· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Adherens junction.   (View pathway)

· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Rap1 signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Wnt signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Hippo signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Human papillomavirus infection.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > HTLV-I infection.

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Pathways in cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Colorectal cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Endometrial cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Prostate cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Thyroid cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Basal cell carcinoma.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Breast cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Hepatocellular carcinoma.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Gastric cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).

· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Leukocyte transendothelial migration.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Melanogenesis.

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Thyroid hormone signaling pathway.   (View pathway)


1). Neuropilin-1 promotes mitochondrial structural repair and functional recovery in rats with cerebral ischemia. Journal of Translational Medicine, 2023 (PubMed: 37138283) [IF=7.4]

Application: WB    Species: Rat    Sample:

Fig. 7 The effect of NRP-1 overexpression on protein expression in tMCAO lesions following administration of XAV-939. A Representative immunoblots and B Western Blot analysis of Wnt1, C Wnt3α, D p-β-catenin, E β-catenin, F C-Myc, G CyclinD1, H Cytosolic Cyt c, I mitochondrial Cyt c, J Nuclear AIF, K Bcl-2 in the penumbra region of different groups; n = 4. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. and analyzed by one-way analysis of ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc test. *p 

2). HECW1 restrains cervical cancer cell growth by promoting DVL1 ubiquitination and downregulating the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Experimental cell research, 2024 (PubMed: 38266865) [IF=3.7]

3). Lithium chloride inhibits cell survival, overcomes drug resistance, and triggers apoptosis in multiple myeloma via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. American Journal of Translational Research, 2018 (PubMed: 30210697) [IF=2.2]

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: RPMI-8226 cells

Figure 5. |The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was activated in MM cells. A, B. Western blot analyses of the GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β protein levels in RPMI-8226 and U266 cells treated with 40 mM NaCl or 40 mM LiCl for 48 h, and using β-actin as an internal reference. C, D. RPMI-8226 and U266 cells were treated with 40 mM NaCl or 40 mM LiCl, the nuclear proteins were extracted, and then Western blot analyses of β-catenin and p-β-catenin protein levels were performed, using histone H3 as an internal reference.

4). Changes in β-Catenin Expression in the Anterior Vaginal Wall Tissues of Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Potential Pathophysiological Mechanism. Urogynecology, 2020 (PubMed: 31596772)

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