Product: Phospho-Insulin Receptor beta (Tyr1361) Antibody
Catalog: AF3099
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Phospho-Insulin Receptor beta (Tyr1361)
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog, Chicken, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 95kDa; 156kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P06213
RRID: AB_2834536

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 100ul $280 In stock
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Product Info

Source:
Rabbit
Application:
WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.
*Tips:

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Reactivity:
Human,Mouse,Rat
Prediction:
Pig(92%), Bovine(92%), Sheep(92%), Rabbit(92%), Dog(100%), Chicken(100%), Xenopus(100%)
Clonality:
Polyclonal
Specificity:
Phospho-IR (Tyr1361) Antibody detects endogenous levels of IR only when phosphorylated at Tyrosine 1361.
RRID:
AB_2834536
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF3099, RRID:AB_2834536.
Conjugate:
Unconjugated.
Purification:
The antibody is from purified rabbit serum by affinity purification via sequential chromatography on phospho-peptide and non-phospho-peptide affinity columns.
Storage:
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.
Alias:

Fold/Unfold

CD220; HHF5; human insulin receptor; Insr; INSR_HUMAN; Insulin receptor subunit beta; IR 1; IR; IR-1; IR1;

Immunogens

Immunogen:
Uniprot:
Gene(ID):
Expression:
P06213 INSR_HUMAN:

Isoform Long and isoform Short are predominantly expressed in tissue targets of insulin metabolic effects: liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle but are also expressed in the peripheral nerve, kidney, pulmonary alveoli, pancreatic acini, placenta vascular endothelium, fibroblasts, monocytes, granulocytes, erythrocytes and skin. Isoform Short is preferentially expressed in fetal cells such as fetal fibroblasts, muscle, liver and kidney. Found as a hybrid receptor with IGF1R in muscle, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, hepatoma, fibroblasts, spleen and placenta (at protein level). Overexpressed in several tumors, including breast, colon, lung, ovary, and thyroid carcinomas.

Description:
The human insulin receptor is a heterotetrameric membrane glycoprotein consisting of disulfide linked subunits in a beta-alpha-alpha-beta configuration. The beta subunit (95 kDa) possesses a single transmembrane domain, whereas the alpha subunit (135 kDa) is completely extracellular. The insulin receptor exhibits receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. RTKs are single pass transmembrane receptors that possess intrinsic cytoplasmic enzymatic activity, catalyzing the transfer of the gamma phosphate of ATP to tyrosine residues in protein substrates. RTKs are essential components of signal transduction pathways that affect cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and metabolism. Included in this large protein family are the insulin receptor and the receptors for growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Receptor activation occurs through ligand binding, which facilitates receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic portion. The interaction of insulin with the alpha subunit of the insulin receptor activates the protein tyrosine kinase of the beta subunit, which then undergoes an autophosphorylation that increases its tyrosine kinase activity. Three adapter proteins, IRS1, IRS2 and Shc, become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following insulin receptor activation. These three phosphorylated proteins then interact with SH2 domain containing signaling proteins.
Sequence:
MATGGRRGAAAAPLLVAVAALLLGAAGHLYPGEVCPGMDIRNNLTRLHELENCSVIEGHLQILLMFKTRPEDFRDLSFPKLIMITDYLLLFRVYGLESLKDLFPNLTVIRGSRLFFNYALVIFEMVHLKELGLYNLMNITRGSVRIEKNNELCYLATIDWSRILDSVEDNYIVLNKDDNEECGDICPGTAKGKTNCPATVINGQFVERCWTHSHCQKVCPTICKSHGCTAEGLCCHSECLGNCSQPDDPTKCVACRNFYLDGRCVETCPPPYYHFQDWRCVNFSFCQDLHHKCKNSRRQGCHQYVIHNNKCIPECPSGYTMNSSNLLCTPCLGPCPKVCHLLEGEKTIDSVTSAQELRGCTVINGSLIINIRGGNNLAAELEANLGLIEEISGYLKIRRSYALVSLSFFRKLRLIRGETLEIGNYSFYALDNQNLRQLWDWSKHNLTITQGKLFFHYNPKLCLSEIHKMEEVSGTKGRQERNDIALKTNGDQASCENELLKFSYIRTSFDKILLRWEPYWPPDFRDLLGFMLFYKEAPYQNVTEFDGQDACGSNSWTVVDIDPPLRSNDPKSQNHPGWLMRGLKPWTQYAIFVKTLVTFSDERRTYGAKSDIIYVQTDATNPSVPLDPISVSNSSSQIILKWKPPSDPNGNITHYLVFWERQAEDSELFELDYCLKGLKLPSRTWSPPFESEDSQKHNQSEYEDSAGECCSCPKTDSQILKELEESSFRKTFEDYLHNVVFVPRKTSSGTGAEDPRPSRKRRSLGDVGNVTVAVPTVAAFPNTSSTSVPTSPEEHRPFEKVVNKESLVISGLRHFTGYRIELQACNQDTPEERCSVAAYVSARTMPEAKADDIVGPVTHEIFENNVVHLMWQEPKEPNGLIVLYEVSYRRYGDEELHLCVSRKHFALERGCRLRGLSPGNYSVRIRATSLAGNGSWTEPTYFYVTDYLDVPSNIAKIIIGPLIFVFLFSVVIGSIYLFLRKRQPDGPLGPLYASSNPEYLSASDVFPCSVYVPDEWEVSREKITLLRELGQGSFGMVYEGNARDIIKGEAETRVAVKTVNESASLRERIEFLNEASVMKGFTCHHVVRLLGVVSKGQPTLVVMELMAHGDLKSYLRSLRPEAENNPGRPPPTLQEMIQMAAEIADGMAYLNAKKFVHRDLAARNCMVAHDFTVKIGDFGMTRDIYETDYYRKGGKGLLPVRWMAPESLKDGVFTTSSDMWSFGVVLWEITSLAEQPYQGLSNEQVLKFVMDGGYLDQPDNCPERVTDLMRMCWQFNPKMRPTFLEIVNLLKDDLHPSFPEVSFFHSEENKAPESEELEMEFEDMENVPLDRSSHCQREEAGGRDGGSSLGFKRSYEEHIPYTHMNGGKKNGRILTLPRSNPS

Predictions

Predictions:

Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Species
Results
Score
Dog
100
Xenopus
100
Chicken
100
Pig
92
Bovine
92
Sheep
92
Rabbit
92
Horse
0
Zebrafish
0
Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - P06213 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
N43 N-Glycosylation
N52 N-Glycosylation
T68 Phosphorylation
T85 Phosphorylation
Y87 Phosphorylation
Y94 Phosphorylation
S98 Phosphorylation
N138 N-Glycosylation
N242 N-Glycosylation
N282 N-Glycosylation
T361 Phosphorylation
N364 N-Glycosylation
S366 Phosphorylation
S400 Phosphorylation
Y401 Phosphorylation
S407 Phosphorylation
N424 N-Glycosylation
N445 N-Glycosylation
T447 Phosphorylation
Y457 Phosphorylation
S464 Phosphorylation
S473 Phosphorylation
N541 N-Glycosylation
S567 Phosphorylation
S682 Phosphorylation
T715 Phosphorylation
S717 Phosphorylation
K721 Ubiquitination
T731 Phosphorylation
N769 N-Glycosylation
Y818 Phosphorylation
N920 N-Glycosylation
S929 Phosphorylation
T940 Phosphorylation
Y992 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
Y999 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
Y1011 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
K1022 Ubiquitination
S1033 Phosphorylation Q9UHD2 (TBK1)
Y1038 Phosphorylation
K1047 Ubiquitination
K1057 Ubiquitination
S1062 Phosphorylation P17252 (PRKCA)
S1064 Phosphorylation P17252 (PRKCA)
C1083 S-Nitrosylation
K1112 Acetylation
Y1149 Phosphorylation
C1165 S-Nitrosylation
Y1185 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
T1187 Phosphorylation
Y1189 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
Y1190 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
K1192 Ubiquitination
K1195 Ubiquitination
S1216 Phosphorylation
S1217 Phosphorylation
S1221 Phosphorylation
C1261 S-Nitrosylation
C1272 S-Nitrosylation
S1314 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
S1332 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
S1333 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
S1348 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
K1352 Methylation
K1352 Ubiquitination
S1354 Phosphorylation
Y1355 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
Y1361 Phosphorylation P06213 (INSR)
T1362 Phosphorylation
T1375 Phosphorylation

PTMs - P06213 As Enzyme

Substrate Site Source
P06213 (INSR) Y992 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) Y999 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) Y1011 Uniprot
P06213-2 (INSR) Y1173 Uniprot
P06213-2 (INSR) Y1177 Uniprot
P06213-2 (INSR) Y1178 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) Y1185 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) Y1189 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) Y1190 Uniprot
P06213-2 (INSR) S1302 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) S1314 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) S1332 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) S1333 Uniprot
P06213-2 (INSR) S1336 Uniprot
P06213-2 (INSR) Y1343 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) S1348 Uniprot
P06213-2 (INSR) Y1349 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) Y1355 Uniprot
P06213 (INSR) Y1361 Uniprot
P07550 (ADRB2) Y132 Uniprot
P07550 (ADRB2) Y141 Uniprot
P07550 (ADRB2) Y350 Uniprot
P07550 (ADRB2) Y354 Uniprot
P0DP23 (CALM1) Y100 Uniprot
P0DP23 (CALM1) Y139 Uniprot
P15090 (FABP4) Y20 Uniprot
P18031 (PTPN1) Y66 Uniprot
P18031 (PTPN1) Y152 Uniprot
P18031 (PTPN1) Y153 Uniprot
P22681 (CBL) Y371 Uniprot
P22681 (CBL) Y700 Uniprot
P25963 (NFKBIA) Y42 Uniprot
P27986-3 (PIK3R1) Y68 Uniprot
P27986-2 (PIK3R1) Y98 Uniprot
P27986-3 (PIK3R1) Y280 Uniprot
P27986-3 (PIK3R1) Y307 Uniprot
P27986-2 (PIK3R1) Y310 Uniprot
P27986-2 (PIK3R1) Y337 Uniprot
P27986 (PIK3R1) Y368 Uniprot
P27986 (PIK3R1) Y580 Uniprot
P27986-1 (PIK3R1) Y607 Uniprot
P29350 (PTPN6) Y536 Uniprot
P29350-3 (PTPN6) Y538 Uniprot
P29353-7 (SHC1) Y318 Uniprot
P29353-1 (SHC1) Y427 Uniprot
P35232 (PHB) Y114 Uniprot
P35568 (IRS1) Y896 Uniprot
P35568 (IRS1) Y989 Uniprot
P35568 (IRS1) Y1179 Uniprot
P35568 (IRS1) Y1229 Uniprot
P42229 (STAT5A) Y694 Uniprot
P51692 (STAT5B) Y699 Uniprot
P53004 (BLVRA) Y198 Uniprot
P53004 (BLVRA) Y228 Uniprot
P53004 (BLVRA) Y291 Uniprot
P60484 (PTEN) Y27 Uniprot
P60484 (PTEN) Y174 Uniprot
P67775 (PPP2CA) Y307 Uniprot
Q05397-1 (PTK2) Y576 Uniprot
Q05397-1 (PTK2) Y577 Uniprot
Q13017 (ARHGAP5) Y306 Uniprot
Q13480 (GAB1) Y242 Uniprot
Q13480-2 (GAB1) Y285 Uniprot
Q13480-1 (GAB1) Y373 Uniprot
Q13480 (GAB1) Y447 Uniprot
Q13480 (GAB1) Y472 Uniprot
Q13480 (GAB1) Y589 Uniprot
Q13480-2 (GAB1) Y619 Uniprot
Q13480-1 (GAB1) Y627 Uniprot
Q13480-2 (GAB1) Y657 Uniprot
Q13480-1 (GAB1) Y659 Uniprot
Q13480-2 (GAB1) Y689 Uniprot
Q658W2 (DKFZp666O0110) Y598 Uniprot
Q658W2 (DKFZp666O0110) Y599 Uniprot
Q92569 (PIK3R3) Y341 Uniprot
Q99704 (DOK1) Y362 Uniprot
Q99704 (DOK1) Y398 Uniprot
Q9Y4H2 (IRS2) Y628 Uniprot
Q9Y4H2 (IRS2) Y632 Uniprot

Research Backgrounds

Function:

Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (IRS1, 2, 3, 4), SHC, GAB1, CBL and other signaling intermediates. Each of these phosphorylated proteins serve as docking proteins for other signaling proteins that contain Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 domain) that specifically recognize different phosphotyrosine residues, including the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K and SHP2. Phosphorylation of IRSs proteins lead to the activation of two main signaling pathways: the PI3K-AKT/PKB pathway, which is responsible for most of the metabolic actions of insulin, and the Ras-MAPK pathway, which regulates expression of some genes and cooperates with the PI3K pathway to control cell growth and differentiation. Binding of the SH2 domains of PI3K to phosphotyrosines on IRS1 leads to the activation of PI3K and the generation of phosphatidylinositol-(3, 4, 5)-triphosphate (PIP3), a lipid second messenger, which activates several PIP3-dependent serine/threonine kinases, such as PDPK1 and subsequently AKT/PKB. The net effect of this pathway is to produce a translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 from cytoplasmic vesicles to the cell membrane to facilitate glucose transport. Moreover, upon insulin stimulation, activated AKT/PKB is responsible for: anti-apoptotic effect of insulin by inducing phosphorylation of BAD; regulates the expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes by controlling the activity of the winged helix or forkhead (FOX) class of transcription factors. Another pathway regulated by PI3K-AKT/PKB activation is mTORC1 signaling pathway which regulates cell growth and metabolism and integrates signals from insulin. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 thereby activating mTORC1 pathway. The Ras/RAF/MAP2K/MAPK pathway is mainly involved in mediating cell growth, survival and cellular differentiation of insulin. Phosphorylated IRS1 recruits GRB2/SOS complex, which triggers the activation of the Ras/RAF/MAP2K/MAPK pathway. In addition to binding insulin, the insulin receptor can bind insulin-like growth factors (IGFI and IGFII). Isoform Short has a higher affinity for IGFII binding. When present in a hybrid receptor with IGF1R, binds IGF1.shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long are activated with a high affinity by IGF1, with low affinity by IGF2 and not significantly activated by insulin, and that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short are activated by IGF1, IGF2 and insulin. In contrast,shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long and hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short have similar binding characteristics, both bind IGF1 and have a low affinity for insulin. In adipocytes, inhibits lipolysis (By similarity).

PTMs:

After being transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, the single glycosylated precursor is further glycosylated and then cleaved, followed by its transport to the plasma membrane.

Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to insulin. Phosphorylation of Tyr-999 is required for binding to IRS1, SHC1 and STAT5B. Dephosphorylated by PTPRE at Tyr-999, Tyr-1185, Tyr-1189 and Tyr-1190. Dephosphorylated by PTPRF and PTPN1. Dephosphorylated by PTPN2; down-regulates insulin-induced signaling.

Subcellular Location:

Cell membrane>Single-pass type I membrane protein. Late endosome. Lysosome.
Note: Binding of insulin to INSR induces internalization and lysosomal degradation of the receptor, a means for downregulating this signaling pathway after stimulation. In the presence of SORL1, internalized INSR molecules are redirected back to the cell surface, thereby preventing their lysosomal catabolism and strengthening insulin signal reception.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Isoform Long and isoform Short are predominantly expressed in tissue targets of insulin metabolic effects: liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle but are also expressed in the peripheral nerve, kidney, pulmonary alveoli, pancreatic acini, placenta vascular endothelium, fibroblasts, monocytes, granulocytes, erythrocytes and skin. Isoform Short is preferentially expressed in fetal cells such as fetal fibroblasts, muscle, liver and kidney. Found as a hybrid receptor with IGF1R in muscle, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, hepatoma, fibroblasts, spleen and placenta (at protein level). Overexpressed in several tumors, including breast, colon, lung, ovary, and thyroid carcinomas.

Subunit Structure:

Tetramer of 2 alpha and 2 beta chains linked by disulfide bonds. The alpha chains carry the insulin-binding regions, while the beta chains carry the kinase domain. Forms a hybrid receptor with IGF1R, the hybrid is a tetramer consisting of 1 alpha chain and 1 beta chain of INSR and 1 alpha chain and 1 beta chain of IGF1R. Interacts with SORBS1 but dissociates from it following insulin stimulation. Binds SH2B2. Activated form of INSR interacts (via Tyr-999) with the PTB/PID domains of IRS1 and SHC1. The sequences surrounding the phosphorylated NPXY motif contribute differentially to either IRS1 or SHC1 recognition. Interacts (via tyrosines in the C-terminus) with IRS2 (via PTB domain and 591-786 AA); the 591-786 would be the primary anchor of IRS2 to INSR while the PTB domain would have a stabilizing action on the interaction with INSR. Interacts with the SH2 domains of the 85 kDa regulatory subunit of PI3K (PIK3R1) in vitro, when autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues. Interacts with SOCS7. Interacts (via the phosphorylated Tyr-999), with SOCS3. Interacts (via the phosphorylated Tyr-1185, Tyr-1189, Tyr-1190) with SOCS1. Interacts with CAV2 (tyrosine-phosphorylated form); the interaction is increased with 'Tyr-27'phosphorylation of CAV2 (By similarity). Interacts with ARRB2 (By similarity). Interacts with GRB10; this interaction blocks the association between IRS1/IRS2 and INSR, significantly reduces insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 and IRS2 and thus decreases insulin signaling. Interacts with GRB7. Interacts with PDPK1. Interacts (via Tyr-1190) with GRB14 (via BPS domain); this interaction protects the tyrosines in the activation loop from dephosphorylation, but promotes dephosphorylation of Tyr-999, this results in decreased interaction with, and phosphorylation of, IRS1. Interacts (via subunit alpha) with ENPP1 (via 485-599 AA); this interaction blocks autophosphorylation. Interacts with PTPRE; this interaction is dependent of Tyr-1185, Tyr-1189 and Tyr-1190 of the INSR. Interacts with STAT5B (via SH2 domain). Interacts with PTPRF. Interacts with ATIC; ATIC together with PRKAA2/AMPK2 and HACD3/PTPLAD1 is proposed to be part of a signaling netwok regulating INSR autophosphorylation and endocytosis (By similarity). Interacts with the cone snail venom insulin Con-Ins G1. Interacts with the insulin receptor SORL1; this interaction strongly increases its surface exposure, hence strengthens insulin signal reception. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with CCDC88A/GIV (via SH2-like region); binding requires autophosphorylation of the INSR C-terminal region. Interacts with GNAI3; the interaction is probably mediated by CCDC88A/GIV.

Family&Domains:

The tetrameric insulin receptor binds insulin via non-identical regions from two alpha chains, primarily via the C-terminal region of the first INSR alpha chain. Residues from the leucine-rich N-terminus of the other INSR alpha chain also contribute to this insulin binding site. A secondary insulin-binding site is formed by residues at the junction of fibronectin type-III domain 1 and 2.

Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Insulin receptor subfamily.

Research Fields

· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Adherens junction.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > MAPK signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Ras signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Rap1 signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > cGMP-PKG signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > HIF-1 signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > FoxO signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Phospholipase D signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > mTOR signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > AMPK signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Endocrine and metabolic diseases > Type II diabetes mellitus.

· Human Diseases > Endocrine and metabolic diseases > Insulin resistance.

· Human Diseases > Endocrine and metabolic diseases > Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

· Organismal Systems > Aging > Longevity regulating pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Aging > Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Insulin signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Ovarian steroidogenesis.

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes.

· Organismal Systems > Excretory system > Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption.

References

1). Myeloid-derived growth factor alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease alleviates in a manner involving IKKβ/NF-κB signaling. Cell Death & Disease, 2023 [IF=9.0]

2). Curcumin suppresses JNK pathway to attenuate BPA-induced insulin resistance in LO2 cells. BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY, 2018 (PubMed: 29793316) [IF=7.5]

3). Low molecular weight fucoidan restores diabetic endothelial glycocalyx by targeting neuraminidase2: A new therapy target in glycocalyx shedding. British journal of pharmacology, 2023 (PubMed: 37994102) [IF=7.3]

4). Hippocampal insulin resistance and the Sirtuin 1 signaling pathway in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction. Neural Regeneration Research, 2021 (PubMed: 33907035) [IF=6.1]

Application: WB    Species: Rat    Sample: diabetic model rats

Figure 5 Insulin signaling molecules and SIRT1 expression are reduced in diabetic rats at week 8 of diabetes. (A) Bands of p-IR, p-IRS-1, and SIRT1. (B–D) Relative expression levels of p-IR (B), p-IRS-1 (C), and SIRT1 (D). The relative expression levels are expressed as the optical density ratio compared against GAPDH levels. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group). **P < 0.01 (one-way analysis of variance). The experiments were repeated three times. DIA-8W: Diabetic rats at week 8 of diabetes; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; IR: insulin receptor; IRS-1: IR receptor substrate 1; NS: non-streptozotocin rats; p-IR: phospho-insulin receptor; p-IRS-1: phospho-insulin receptor substrate; SIRT1: Sirtuin 1.

5). Silencing of ANGPTL8 Alleviates Insulin Resistance in Trophoblast Cells. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2021 (PubMed: 34163433) [IF=5.2]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: placenta

FIGURE 1 | Angiopoietin like-8 (ANGPTL8) was increased in serum and placenta tissues of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mice.(J) Western blot was used to determine the levels of insulin signaling related molecules, p-IRb(Tyr1361), IRb, p-IRS-1(Ser307), p-IRS-1(Tyr896), IRS-1, p-Akt and Akt in placenta tissues.

Application: WB    Species: Mice    Sample: serum and placenta tissues

Figure 1 Angiopoietin like-8 (ANGPTL8) was increased in serum and placenta tissues of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mice. (A) The mice were treated as described in the chart. (B) The body weight of mice in normal fat diet (NFD) and high fat diet (HFD) groups. (C) Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at gestational day (GD)0.5, 11.5 and 16.5. (D, E) Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were measured at GD18.5. (F) Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as follow: HOMA-IR= blood glucose (mM)×blood insulin (mU/l)/22.5. (G) The contents of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in serum were detected. (H) HE staining was performed to detect the pathological changes in labyrinth zone of placenta tissues. (I) Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining was carried out to detect the glycogen accumulation in labyrinth zone of placenta tissues. (J) Western blot was used to determine the levels of insulin signaling related molecules, p-IRβ(Tyr1361), IRβ, p-IRS-1(Ser307), p-IRS-1(Tyr896), IRS-1, p-Akt and Akt in placenta tissues. (K) The expression levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and GLUT4 in placenta tissues. (L) The serum level of ANGPTL8 in mice. (M, N) The mRNA and protein levels of ANGPTL8 in placenta tissues. (the scale bar represents 100 μm; **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. NFD).

6). Sex hormone-binding globulin improves lipid metabolism and reduces inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 2023 (PubMed: 38146533) [IF=5.0]

7). The role of Smad4 in the regulation of insulin resistance, inflammation and cell proliferation in HTR8‐Svneo cells. CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION, 2021 (PubMed: 33079408) [IF=3.6]

Application: WB    Species: Human    Sample: human insulin resistance

FIGURE 2 The deficiency of Smad4 elevated the insulin sensitivity in a cellular model of human insulin resistance. A, The validation of downregulated Smad4 by western-blot. B, The glucose consumption was determined by commercial kit. C-G, The expression levels of p-IRβTyr1361, IRβ, p-IRS-1Ser307, p-IRS-1Tyr612, IRS-1,Akt and p-AktSer473 were determined by western-blot along with relative quantification. H and I, The expressions of GLUT1 and GLUT4 were determined by western-blot along with relative quantification. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. n = 3. *P < .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001, ****P < .0001

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: HTR-8/SVneocells

FIGURE 2 |The deficiency of Smad4 elevated the insulin sensitivity in a cellular model of human insulin resistance.C-G, The expression levels of p-IRβTyr1361, IRβ,p-IRS-1Ser307, p-IRS-1Tyr612, IRS-1,Akt and p-AktSer473 were determined by western-blot along with relative quantification.

8). Curcumin attenuates BPA-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells through suppression of JNK/p38 pathways. TOXICOLOGY LETTERS, 2017 (PubMed: 28300666) [IF=3.5]

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: HepG2

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: HepG2 cells

Figure 5| Effect of curcumin on BPA-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. (C) HepG2 cells were treated with combination of 100 nM BPA and different concentrations of curcumin (1 µM to 5 µM) for 5 d, the levels of p-IR, p-IRS1 and p-AKT were measured by Western blot. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. ∗∗P < 0.01, significantly different as compared with the untreated control, # P< 0.05, significantly different as compared with BPA group.

9). Orphan nuclear receptor NUR77 relieves insulin resistance in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells through activation of autophagy and insulin signaling. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY, 2022 (PubMed: 35902547) [IF=3.4]

10). P53 modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity through NF-κB and p38/ERK MAPK pathways. BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, 2018 (PubMed: 29258820) [IF=3.1]

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