C-RAF Antibody - #AF0837
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.
WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF0837, RRID:AB_2834122.
c Raf; C-raf; C-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase; CMD1NN; Craf 1 transforming gene; cRaf; Craf1 transforming gene; EC 188.8.131.52; kinase Raf1; Murine sarcoma 3611 oncogene 1; NS5; Oncogene MIL; Oncogene RAF1; OTTHUMP00000160218; OTTHUMP00000207813; OTTHUMP00000209389; Protein kinase raf 1; Proto-oncogene c-RAF; Raf 1; Raf 1 proto oncogene serine/threonine kinase; RAF; Raf proto oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAF-1; RAF1; RAF1_HUMAN; Similar to murine leukemia viral (V-raf-1) oncogene homolog 1; TRANSFORMING REPLICATION-DEFECTIVE MURINE RETROVIRUS 3611-MSV; v raf 1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1; v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog 1; v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene-like protein 1; vraf1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1;
In skeletal muscle, isoform 1 is more abundant than isoform 2.
Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence
PTMs - P04049 As Substrate
|S43||Phosphorylation||P17252 (PRKCA) , P17612 (PRKACA)||Uniprot|
|S233||Phosphorylation||P17612 (PRKACA) , P17252 (PRKCA)||Uniprot|
|S259||Phosphorylation||O95835 (LATS1) , P17612 (PRKACA) , P31749 (AKT1) , Q13131 (PRKAA1) , P04049 (RAF1)||Uniprot|
|S289||Phosphorylation||P28482 (MAPK1) , P27361 (MAPK3)||Uniprot|
|S296||Phosphorylation||P27361 (MAPK3) , P28482 (MAPK1)||Uniprot|
|S301||Phosphorylation||P28482 (MAPK1) , P27361 (MAPK3)||Uniprot|
|S338||Phosphorylation||Q02750 (MAP2K1) , P04049 (RAF1) , O75914 (PAK3) , P53350 (PLK1) , Q13153 (PAK1) , Q16512 (PKN1)||Uniprot|
|S339||Phosphorylation||P53350 (PLK1) , O75914 (PAK3) , Q16512 (PKN1) , Q13153 (PAK1)||Uniprot|
|S497||Phosphorylation||P05771 (PRKCB) , P05129 (PRKCG) , P17252 (PRKCA)||Uniprot|
|S619||Phosphorylation||P05129 (PRKCG) , P05771 (PRKCB) , P17252 (PRKCA)||Uniprot|
|S621||Phosphorylation||P17612 (PRKACA) , P04049 (RAF1) , Q13131 (PRKAA1)||Uniprot|
PTMs - P04049 As Enzyme
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a regulatory link between the membrane-associated Ras GTPases and the MAPK/ERK cascade, and this critical regulatory link functions as a switch determining cell fate decisions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival and oncogenic transformation. RAF1 activation initiates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that comprises a sequential phosphorylation of the dual-specific MAPK kinases (MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2). The phosphorylated form of RAF1 (on residues Ser-338 and Ser-339, by PAK1) phosphorylates BAD/Bcl2-antagonist of cell death at 'Ser-75'. Phosphorylates adenylyl cyclases: ADCY2, ADCY5 and ADCY6, resulting in their activation. Phosphorylates PPP1R12A resulting in inhibition of the phosphatase activity. Phosphorylates TNNT2/cardiac muscle troponin T. Can promote NF-kB activation and inhibit signal transducers involved in motility (ROCK2), apoptosis (MAP3K5/ASK1 and STK3/MST2), proliferation and angiogenesis (RB1). Can protect cells from apoptosis also by translocating to the mitochondria where it binds BCL2 and displaces BAD/Bcl2-antagonist of cell death. Regulates Rho signaling and migration, and is required for normal wound healing. Plays a role in the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells via repression of the TJ protein, occludin (OCLN) by inducing the up-regulation of a transcriptional repressor SNAI2/SLUG, which induces down-regulation of OCLN. Restricts caspase activation in response to selected stimuli, notably Fas stimulation, pathogen-mediated macrophage apoptosis, and erythroid differentiation.
Phosphorylation at Thr-269, Ser-338, Tyr-341, Thr-491 and Ser-494 results in its activation. Phosphorylation at Ser-29, Ser-43, Ser-289, Ser-296, Ser-301 and Ser-642 by MAPK1/ERK2 results in its inactivation. Phosphorylation at Ser-259 induces the interaction with YWHAZ and inactivates kinase activity. Dephosphorylation of Ser-259 by the complex containing protein phosphatase 1, SHOC2 and M-Ras/MRAS relieves inactivation, leading to stimulate RAF1 activity. Phosphorylation at Ser-338 by PAK1 and PAK5 and Ser-339 by PAK1 is required for its mitochondrial localization. Phosphorylation at Ser-621 in response to growth factor treatment stabilizes the protein, possibly by preventing proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylation at Ser-289, Ser-296, Ser-301, Ser-338 and Ser-621 are somehow linked to the methylation potential of cells. Treatment of cells with HGF in the presence of the methylation inhibitor 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) results in increased phosphorylation at Ser-338 and Ser-621 and decreased phosphorylation at Ser-296, Ser-301 and Ser-338. Dephosphorylation at Ser-338 by PPP5C results in an activity decrease.
Methylated at Arg-563 in response to EGF treatment. This modification leads to destabilization of the protein, possibly through proteasomal degradation.
Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Mitochondrion. Nucleus.
Note: Colocalizes with RGS14 and BRAF in both the cytoplasm and membranes. Phosphorylation at Ser-259 impairs its membrane accumulation. Recruited to the cell membrane by the active Ras protein. Phosphorylation at Ser-338 and Ser-339 by PAK1 is required for its mitochondrial localization. Retinoic acid-induced Ser-621 phosphorylated form of RAF1 is predominantly localized at the nucleus.
In skeletal muscle, isoform 1 is more abundant than isoform 2.
Monomer. Homodimer. Heterodimerizes with BRAF and this heterodimer possesses a highly increased kinase activity compared to the respective homodimers or monomers. Heterodimerization is mitogen-regulated and enhanced by 14-3-3 proteins. MAPK1/ERK2 activation can induce a negative feedback that promotes the dissociation of the heterodimer. Forms a multiprotein complex with Ras (M-Ras/MRAS), SHOC2 and protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1CA, PPP1CB and PPP1CC). Interacts with LZTR1. Interacts with Ras proteins; the interaction is antagonized by RIN1. Weakly interacts with RIT1. Interacts (via N-terminus) with RGS14 (via RBD domains); the interaction mediates the formation of a ternary complex with BRAF, a ternary complex inhibited by GNAI1 (By similarity). Probably forms a complex composed of chaperones HSP90 and HSP70, co-chaperones CDC37, PPP5C, TSC1 and client protein TSC2, CDK4, AKT, RAF1 and NR3C1; this complex does not contain co-chaperones STIP1/HOP and PTGES3/p23. Interacts with STK3/MST2; the interaction inhibits its pro-apoptotic activity. Interacts (when phosphorylated at Ser-259) with YWHAZ (unphosphorylated at 'Thr-232'). Interacts with MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 (By similarity). Interacts with MAP3K5/ASF1 (via N-terminus) and this interaction inhibits the proapoptotic function of MAP3K5/ASK1. Interacts with PAK1 (via kinase domain). The phosphorylated form interacts with PIN1 (By similarity). The Ser-338 and Ser-339 phosphorylated form (by PAK1) interacts with BCL2. Interacts with PEBP1/RKIP and this interaction is enhanced if RAF1 is phosphorylated on residues Ser-338, Ser-339, Tyr-340 and Tyr-341. Interacts with ADCY2, ADCY5, ADCY6, DGKH, RCAN1/DSCR1, PPP1R12A, PKB/AKT1, PPP2CA, PPP2R1B, SPRY2, SPRY4, CNKSR1/CNK1, KSR2 and PHB/prohibitin. Interacts with ROCK2 (By similarity). In its active form, interacts with PRMT5. Interacts with FAM83B; displaces 14-3-3 proteins from RAF1 and activates RAF1. Interacts with PDE8A; the interaction promotes RAF1 activity. Interacts with MFHAS1. Interacts with GLS.
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAF subfamily.
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells. (View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Drug resistance: Antineoplastic > EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance.
· Human Diseases > Drug resistance: Antineoplastic > Endocrine resistance.
· Human Diseases > Substance dependence > Alcoholism.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Hepatitis C.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Hepatitis B.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Influenza A.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Human papillomavirus infection.
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > MicroRNAs in cancer.
· Organismal Systems > Nervous system > Long-term potentiation.
· Organismal Systems > Nervous system > Serotonergic synapse.
· Organismal Systems > Nervous system > Long-term depression.
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation.
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Melanogenesis.
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Oxytocin signaling pathway.
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Relaxin signaling pathway.
Application: WB Species: mouse Sample: lung
Affinity Biosciences tests all products strictly. Citations are provided as a resource for additional applications that have not been validated by Affinity Biosciences. Please choose the appropriate format for each application and consult Materials and Methods sections for additional details about the use of any product in these publications.
For Research Use Only.
Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Not for resale. Not for distribution without written consent. Affinity Biosciences will not be held responsible for patent infringement or other violations that may occur with the use of our products. Affinity Biosciences, Affinity Biosciences Logo and all other trademarks are the property of Affinity Biosciences LTD.